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Copulas
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This public article was written by brblues, and last updated on 19 Apr 2020, 17:20.

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[Public] ? ?
2. Copulas ? ?
There exist various copulas:

EBKSG Copula UsageEnglishEarly Bokisig
/he/Inalienable possession"I have big ears"mu
1SGUnknown code
dodohɛ
big
mil-za
ear-DUDual (number)
two
he
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost

Existential copula (generic statements)"There are no animals on islands"ʔaleb
island
kil
animal

NEGNegative (polarity)
not
he
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost

/hɛ/Alienable possession"I have a big house"mu
1SGUnknown code
dodohɛ
big
sot
house

COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.ALAlienable (possession)
thing that can be gained or lost

Existential copula (statements about specific instances)"There are no animals on that island"(sa)
(DEMDemonstrative
e.g. this/ that
)
ʔaleb
island
kil
animal

NEGNegative (polarity)
not

COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
.ALAlienable (possession)
thing that can be gained or lost

/kun/Noun = noun constructions"I am your father, Luke"mu
1SGUnknown code
dɛx-he
2SGUnknown code-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
bata
father
kun
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
Luke
Luke


Some examples based on phrases where the copula "to be" is used in English:

(ki)
(3SGUnknown code.ANIMUnknown code)
lumboki
fisher
kun
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

"He is a fisherman."

“kun” is the copula for “noun = noun” constructions; personal pronouns are frequently dropped.


(ki)
(3SGUnknown code.ANIMUnknown code)
ma.hɛ
be.strong

"S/he is strong."

Stative verbs are used for predicative adjectives

(ki)
(3SGUnknown code.ANIMUnknown code)
mu-he
1SGUnknown code-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
ki.ʔud.ki
spouse
kun
COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

"S/he is my spouse."


This uses the same construction as the “fisherman” example above.


(ki)
(3SGUnknown code.ANIMUnknown code)
mu-he
1SGUnknown code-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
sot
house
mɛhɛ
be.located


"He is in my house."

A "locative verb" is employed here – that is, a stative verb that expresses the location “at / inside / near”, with the location as direct object.
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