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The origin of Uyendur words
This public article was written by clawgrip, and last updated on 18 Oct 2017, 05:24.
Words loaned from Naduta are generally either:
- words for which Proto-Wibbayuric had no suitable words;
- words with meanings that were similar to Proto-Wibbayuric words but carried different shades of meaning;
- words that entirely replaced Proto-Wibbayuric words;
- and words with learned or technical meanings.
1: Disoto ḍitoto "temple" — From Naduta 寺 disan "temple"
2: uerixu werixu "to set out; to depart" — from Naduta 去 wer- "to leave; to go away" cf. the native Uyendur word hurixu ngurixu "to leave; to go away"
3: kemexu kemexu "to meet" — from Naduta 会 kheme- "to meet; to encounter", which replaced the Wibbayuric word xusani húsanihu "to meet; to come across"
4: raBaku raḅaku "soldier" — from Naduta 武人斧 trabata "warrior; fighter; soldier" cf. the native Uyendur word xuttimu xuttimu "fighter"
Some more comparisons and examples:
Native Uyendur words:
xutixu xutixu - "to fight; to battle" (v)
xutraiu xutrayu - "fight; battle" (n)
xuttimu xuttimu - "fighter"
From Naduta → Uyendur:
武具 traten → radeku radeku - "weapon"
武 tratunta → radundaku radundaku - war
武斧乃l tratunta yah → radundaia radundaya - "military" (adj)
武組e tratharun → rataru rataru - "army; troops"
武人斧 trabata → raBaku raḅaku - "soldier"
gadum gadum - "river"
xuiuddaia xuyuddaya - "fluvial" — from 川斧乃l yhusta yah "of the river"
nium nium "nose"
surnaia tunnaya "nasal" — from 鼻e乃l surna yah "of the nose"
Dapum ḍapum "sea; ocean"
rwmandaia rĕmandaya "maritime; oceanic" — from ruymanta yah "of the sea"
xunwbixu xunĕbixu "to fish"
Gorunia ġorunya "piscatory; pertaining to fishing" — from 漁e乃l guerun yah "of fishing"
A feature unique to the Uyendur languages among the Wibbayuric languages are mimetic words, a class of expressive adverbs. Some are semantically more similar to adjectives, but grammatically they are all adverbs and must modify verbs. These words generally describe the manner in which an action takes place by referencing the emotional state of the person performing the action.
All mimetic words follow the pattern of (C)V1NCV2CV1n. Many are clearly derived from preexisting vocabulary, while others are of uncertain origin.
tenkiren tenkiren "difficult; challenging; demanding"
Derived from the word tek tek "difficult; arduous". It displays the subject's enthusiasm and belief that the challenge is welcome and something to be desired.
bandoran bandoran "disappointedly"
Of unknown origin. It directly references the emotion of the subject, showing resigned disappointment.
duhgiiun dunggiyun "full; in a satiated way"
Transparently derived from the word dug dug- "to fill". It references the subject's satisfaction in being full from eating.
xindirin xindirin "full; in a glutted/gorged way"
Derived from xinid xinid- "to swell; to bloat". unlike dungiyun above, it references the subjects discomfort after having eaten too much food.
dampotan dampotan "aimlessly"
Derived from daraup daraup- "to stroll". It references the subject's relaxed state and lack of urgency.
The bulk of the Uyendur lexicon comprises native Wibbayuric vocabulary. However, many other words derive from Naduta via Proto-Wibbayuric.