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Deinau verb
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Verb conjugation
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 9 Aug 2019, 04:03.

[comments] Menu 1. The verb base 2. Tense and mood 3. Uses of the TAM suffixes 4. Number 5. Person 6. Non-finite verbs 7. Auxiliary verbs 8. Predicative 9. Conjugation examples 10. Sentence examples Deinau verb inflects for person, number, tense and mode with a series of suffixes and stress changes. Some verbs also receive a deictic preffix that shows distance or indefinite arguments, and some others form their base with a classificatory preffix that comes from an incorporated noun.

(DX)-[(INC.N)-[ROOT]-[TR]]-[TAM]-[PL]-[INCL]

[top]The verb base

The verb base consists in a root, a tonal melody and a suffix that together show transitivity and voice.


transitiveH-a
unaccusativeHL-∅
unergativeH-∅
movementH-is


There are another three suffixes that can change the verb's valence, causatives and middle-passive. They involve a change in tone and a suffix. Causatives receive the same suffix of transitive verbs, and can only be added to intransitive ones. Middle-passive has suffix -in in finite verbs. Both forms have a descendant tone. Applicative receives suffix -(e)l and has a high tone. It doesn't replace a transitive -a.
There's another causative formed with the auxiliary p-, to do. This one is used with some derivated forms, and is becoming the norm to make transitive verbs.


causativeHL-a
Middle-passiveHL-in
ApplicativeH-(e)l
PassiveH-ok-a


▼ Examples

Dónmi ·mìṇimnip malmamu
Dónmi
DUnknown codeónmi.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
·mi-ṇimni-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-blanket.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-DEFDefinite
"the"
malm-a-m-u
wash-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Donmi washed the blanket

Dónmi íl ·mìṇimnip màlmamu
Dónmi
DUnknown codeónmi.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
í-l
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
·mi-ṇimni-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-blanket.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-DEFDefinite
"the"
malm-a-m-u
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.wash.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Donmi made me wash the blanket.

Bál Donmì ·mìṇimnip màlmamu
bá-l
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
Dónmi
Donmi.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
·mi-ṇimni-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-blanket.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-DEFDefinite
"the"
malm-a-m-u
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.wash.CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

I made Donmi wash the blanket.

·Miṇimnip malmìnmu
·mi-ṇimni-p
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-blanket.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
-DEFDefinite
"the"
malm-ìn-m-u
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.wash-MPASUnknown code-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The blanket was washed.

Donmi malmìnmu.
Donmi
Donmi.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
malm-ìn-m-u
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.wash-MPASUnknown code-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Donmi was washed.

Pál màlminmu.
pá-l
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
malm-ìn-m-u
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.wash-MPASUnknown code-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

I was washed.

Dónmi ŋíl ·mìrimnip málmalmu.
Donmi wash the blanket for me.

Bál Dónmi ŋi ·mìrimnip málmalmu.
I washed the blanket for Donmi.

·Mirimni Dónmi malmokamu.
The blanket was washed by Donmi.

·Mirimni bál malmokamu.
The blanket was washed by me.


[top]Tense and mood

There are seven different moods, and most of them have a past-non past distinction. The declarative has another one between perfective and imperfective, making four declarative forms. This suffixes come after the verb base and before the number suffix if present. They are not used in the main verb of an auxiliary construction, showing on the auxiliary instead.
The table below shows the combinations of suffixes used for every tense, mood and aspect:



pasnpas
decl.pfvmudu
decl.impfmata
condgagat
potlo/lot
imps
optmpipi
dubṇtanẓan
miṇŋmiki


This system is actually composed of three kinds of prefixes that combine in several ways. Mood suffixes can come before or after the tense markers, and in most of them one of the tense values has a zero suffix. Here are the components of each marker:




moodtensemood/aspect
gaga

gatgat
lo(t)lo(t)
ss

ta
ta
du
du
ma

ma
mu
mu
mpi

mpi
pi

pi
ṇtan
m
ẓan
ẓan

ẓan
ŋmikmi
kik
i


[top]Uses of the TAM suffixes

Declarative
Declarative is used if there event is assumed as a fact. There's an aspect distinction between perfective and imperfective that is only found in this mode.

Conditional
This one is used for both parts of a conditional sentence.

PgdxFZnkEXshcXcRsfgpnfXtLkusuFXlhbf
Bál zulù nébga, ·sláŋḍizeg ken ·zàdga.
Bál
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
s-sulu
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-fish.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
nep-a-ga
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.have-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
s-láŋḍize-g
mass-coconut:milk.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
-INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
ken
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
·zad-a-ga
cook-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...

If I had a fish, I'd cook it with coconut milk.

Optative
Optative is used for wishes and desires.

UpipXrgufZshsFhriXrmfzZshbF

Bàs ·ṣmannìi sàs ·gúṇpapii.
Bàs
ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
-2TSecond person trial (person)
three of you
s-·maṇni-ː
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
-cow.OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
-DEFDefinite
"the"
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
s`a-s
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
·gúṇp-a-pi-u
<2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
>find-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-OPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

May you find your cows!

Dubitative
This mode is used for uncertain information.

Lá smeẓan.

someone.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
s-mes-ẓan
<3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
>go-VENVenitive (case)
coming 'towards'
-DUBDubitative mood (mood)
expresses doubt

It seems somebody is coming.

Imperative
Imperative is used to give commands. It doesn't inflect for tense and comes after the number suffix. Number relates to the subject of transitives, not like the other moods.

Sŋlése ken ·zàdas!
s-ŋlése
INDEFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.mass-water-OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
ken
INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
·zàd-a-s
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.cook-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-IMPImperative (mood)
command

Cook it with water!

Mirative
This mode indicates surprise of the speaker and unexpected information.

PmiXcgFXrqXckfrftiOkXlxosfj
·Zólkat iṇé káŋ ṭankàŋmi!
·zólkat
horse.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
iṇé
from<3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
>
káŋ
just
ṭank-k-m-i
<3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
>fall-MIRMirative/admirative (mood/emotive)
surprise, doubt
<PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
>

He just fell of the horse!

Potential
Potential is used for events that are likely to occur.

·Nimŋid mollót.
·nimŋid
tomorrow
mol-lót
rain-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability

It's surely gonna rain tomorrow.

[top]Number

There are several suffixes that indicate number. They also show if the verb is part of a bigger verb phrase (serial verbs, auxiliaries). Verbs count four numbers: singular, dual, paucal and plural. There is also a suffix for inclusive, -n, that also appears with pronouns. This suffix is -l in other dialects.


Number
Suffix
singular
-∅
dual-s(i)
paucal-ŋ(a)/-n(a)
plural-u


[top]Person

Person agreement is simple. There is a third/non third person contrast. First and second person verbs move the tone to the first mora and third person to the second.

[top]Non-finite verbs

There are three different non-finite verb forms. These verbs don't inflect for number or TAM since they are nominalised. Only relative verbs show person agreement and still have a few verbal traits. Verb classes use different suffix and tone patterns for non-finite forms.



MainRelative Interr/NegParticiple
MedPinag
Pag
Aiag
Movisiigŋu
Traimŋ
APL(e)llilimliŋ
Caus 1aimŋ
Caus 2aasHAB+piHAB+pumHAB+piŋ


MainRelativeInterr/NegParticiple
MedPHLHLHLH
PHLHLHLH
AHHLHH
MovHHHH
TrHHHLHL
AplHHHLHL
CausHLHLHLHL


▼ Examples



MainRelative Interr/NegParticiple
MedPgòlingòlgòlgòlag
Pźùrźùrźùrźùrag
Amáapmáapimáapmáapag
Movŋúbisŋúbiŋúbigŋúmŋu
Trpalapalipalampalaŋ
Caus 1pàlapàlipàlampàlaŋ
Caus 2pálaaspàlaŋ pipàlaŋ pumpàlaŋ piŋ



[top]Auxiliary verbs

Auxiliary verbs are used to mark certain aspects, directionality and negatives. They receive the person, number and mode inflection and require the verb to have certain forms.

Negative verb
Negation is marked with a verb, 'ó'. Lexical verbs keep their transitivity marking and receive an special suffix. They don't get number or TAM suffixes, and the position of the accent is the same for both verbs.

Báal ·nimás múkorre slàam ómu.
báal
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
·nimás
yesterday
mú-korre
flat-letter.INDFIndefinite
a nonspecific referent
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
slàa-m
write-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ómu
<1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
>NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IMPFUnknown code.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

I didn't write a letter yesterday

Ilíi ŋubgu otá.

Habitual
Habitual is formed with the verb be-, 'to do'. This is a transitive verb, but it doesn't have the -a suffix. The main verb receives a nominalized and doesn't mark number or TAM. The accent goes on the first syllable of the main verb.

Báal kúrkur kórre slàaŋ bému.
báal
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
kúrkur korre
send-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
slaà-ŋ
write-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
bému
<1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
>HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-IMPFUnknown code.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

I write letters every day

Ilíi kudàŋa sok ŋúbig betá.
The woman runs every morning.

Ilíi kudàŋa sok ŋúbig bìim otá.
The woman doesn't run every morning.

Evidentials
These verbs are used to say something about the source of information. This trigger another set of changes on the preceding verb. When another auxiliary verb is used some evidentials are marked with only a change in the inflected verb.

▼ Random sentences (outdated)

Bàs mulkù gaasamu.
You ate chicken

Bàs mulkù gaàsam omu.
you didnt eat chicken

Bàs mulkù gaasaŋ betà
you usually eat chicken

Bàs mulkù gaasaŋ bém ota.
you usually don't eat chicken

Bàs mulkù gaasaa andú
You ate chicken (I saw it)

Bàs mulkù gaàsam uúdu
you didnt eat chicken (I didn't see it)

Bàs mulkù gaàsaŋ biídu
you usually eat chicken (i've seen you)

Bàs mulkù gaàsaŋ bém uúdu
you usually don't eat chicken (i've seen you)



·Lu kìikaŋ biídu
You kill people usually (i've seen you)

·Lu kìikaŋ biídu
You kill people usually (i've seen you)



[top]Predicative

Nouns can be used as predicates by removing the class prefix and adding a suffix -u, for animate subjects, and -du, for inanimates. They behave like This turns them into intransitive verbs with descending accent and they can receive all verbal inflection.

[top]Conjugation examples

See here

[top]Sentence examples

▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below

áŦpur sugùtpaa ·kiimkaŋa.
HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
-Trapur.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
ANIMUnknown code-chicken-PAUCUnknown code.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.DEFDefinite
"the"
kill-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-DECLDeclarative (mood)
a common realis mood
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PVFUnknown code-PAUCUnknown code
Trapur killed some chickens.

Súgutpas aŦàpur ·kiimka.
ANIMUnknown code-chicken-PAUCUnknown code.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
.DEFDefinite
"the"
HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
-Trapur.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
kill-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-DECLDeclarative (mood)
a common realis mood
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PVFUnknown code
Some chickens killed Trapur.

ÁŦpur ra ·gutkiikinmu.
HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
-Trapur.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
by 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.chicken-kill-MEDPMediopassive (voice)
passive, reflexive, and/or middle voice
-DECLDeclarative (mood)
a common realis mood
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.IMPFUnknown code
Trapur kills chicken (as a job).

PmfZgkhkifZdguXrpuqfa

aŦápur gud ·kíikag ·má.

HUMHuman (gender/class)
human or belonging to human
-Trapur-ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
chicken kill-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
do.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.IMPFUnknown code.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech

Trapur kills chicken (usually).

Sugúdus ·kiìkinma.
ANIMUnknown code-chicken-PAUCUnknown code.ABSAbsolutive (case)
TRANS object, INTR argument
kill-PASPast
action occurred before moment of speech
-DECLDeclarative (mood)
a common realis mood
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PVFUnknown code
Some chickens were killed.

QcdukhkifZlbfXkduguFsu
Sugùtpaa bál ·kíigduŋa.
ANIMUnknown code-chicken-PAUCUnknown code.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
kill-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IMPFUnknown code.DECLDeclarative (mood)
a common realis mood
-PAUCUnknown code
I'm killing some chickens.

Súgutpas íil ·kíigdu.
ANIMUnknown code-chicken-PAUCUnknown code.ERGErgative (case)
TRANS subject; agent
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
kill.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
-NPSTNon-past (tense)
present, continuous and future
.IMPFUnknown code.DECLDeclarative (mood)
a common realis mood

Some chickens are killing me!


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