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Galaegréis u Todabéig
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Pronoun Contractions
This public article was written by argyle, and last updated on 17 Feb 2019, 16:33.

[comments] Menu 1. Subject Pronouns and Direct Objects 2. Direct Objects and Indirect Objects 3. More Examples When pronouns are the subject and the objects (direct and indirect) of a verb, most will contract. This usually occurs in speech and in writing except for the most formal of writings. Note that these contractions are not mandatory, but are commonly employed. A speaker may opt to not contract pronouns for the sake of emphasis or clarity.

The usual (and pretty much only) word order is:

    verb subject direct object indirect object


As a refresher, the pronouns are:

SingularPlural
1 gaegaeb
2 dudub
3ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
leli
3INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
neni
REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
reri

These forms are identical for both nominative and accusative forms.

[top]Subject Pronouns and Direct Objects

Because Edievian pronouns do not have separate forms for the nominative and accusative, and because many verbs have identical forms in the singular gnomic (present) tense, some phrases can get a bit ambiguous unless the pronouns are all inserted into the phrase. This occurs often, even though Edievian is generally a pro-drop language.

The grand majority of pronouns will contract with each other when two pronouns are used as the subject and the direct object, thanks to Edievian's structure as a VSO language. Here are the contractions, with the subject pronouns on the left, and the object pronouns above.

Cells in blue are combined with the reflexive pronouns re and ri, since the subject is acting upon itself. You'll notice that these cells are split between reflexive contractions and non-reflexive contractions, compare the following:

It sees itself. It sees it.
Rendered in Edievian, these would be (respective), Scaol le'r and Scaol le'l. The first has the subject acting on itself (reflexive), but the second has the subject seeing a different object that happens to also be singular and animate.
Direct Object
gaedulenegaebdublini
 S   u   b   j   e   c   t gae gae'rgae'dgae'lgae'ngae'daebgae dubgae ligae ni
du du'gdu'rdu'ldu'ndu gaebdu dubdu lidu ni
le le'gle'dle'rle'lle'nle gaeble duble'ile ni
ne ne'gne'dne'lne'rne'nne gaebne dubne'ine ni
gaeb gaev'aeggaev'aedgaev'aelgaev'aengaeb rigaeb dubgaeb ligaeb ni
dub duv'aegduv'aeddub'aelduv'aendub gaebdub ridub lidub ni
li li'gli'dli'lli'nli gaebli dubli'rli'ili ni
ni ni'gni'dni'lni'nni gaebni dubni lini'rni ni
Examples:
I hit it! Taran gae'n!
Did we eat it? Mes siáomom gaev'aen?
She saw herself in the mirror. Scaolaen le'r po spaegaol.
[top]Direct Objects and Indirect Objects
The default word order of subject direct object indirect object makes it so that a subject pronoun will never contract with an indirect object pronoun because all ambitransitive verbs require both objects - that is to say that you cannot give an indirect object with a direct object as well. The indirect object pronouns are really the inflected forms of the preposition ae (ae changes to i when its object is plural, hence the i-prefixes on the plural pronoun forms). Its full inflection is:
gaeduleneregaebdubliniri
ae/i aecaetaelaenaeriamiabiiinir
In this table, the blue cells are where the same pronoun is the direct and indirect object, and therefore exist, but aren't commonplace. Note that the row for the reflexive pronouns re/ri (they share the same forms when combined with the indirect object pronouns) refers to the subject and the direct object being the same (cf English "I give myself to you"). The columns for the reflexive pronouns re and ri (as their indirect forms, aer and ir) refer to the subject and the indirect object being the same referent (cf English "I told the story to myself").
Indirect Object
aecaetaelaeniamiabiiinaerir
D i r e c t O b j e c t gae g'aecg'aetg'aelg'aeng'iamg'iabg'iig'ing'aerg'ir
du d'aecd'aetd'aeld'aend'iamd'iabd'iid'ind'aerd'ir
le l'aecl'aetl'aell'aenl'iaml'iabl'iil'inl'aerl'ir
ne n'aecn'aetn'aeln'aenn'iamn'iabn'iin'inn'aern'ir
gaeb gaev'aecgaev'aetgaev'aelgaev'aengaev'iamgaev'iab gaev'iigaev'ingaev'aergaev'ir
dub duv'aecduv'aetduv'aelduv'aenduv'iamduv'iabduv'iiduv'induv'aerduv'ir
li li aecli aetli aelli aenli'amli'abli'ili inli aerli ir
ni ni'aecni'aetni'aelni'aenni'amni'abni'ini'nni'aerni'ir
re/ri r'aecr'aetr'aelr'aenr'iamr'iabr'iir'inr'aerr'ir
If all three (subject, direct object, and indirect object) are pronouns, the direct and indirect object pronouns will contract, instead of the subject and direct object. If the indirect object is not a pronoun, but the subject and direct object are pronouns, then they will contract. Finally, if the direct object is not a pronoun, then no other pronouns will contract because it separates the subject and object.
Tiág gae n'aet. I give it to you.
Tiág gae'n aéis baen. I give it to the woman.
Tiág gae nóis aomal ael. I give him/her some money.
[top]More Examples
A few examples, just due to the multitude of tables. To help in disambiguation, the subjects will be red, the direct objects blue, and the indirect objects green.
I gave myself it. Tiágan gae n'aec. give-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGDATUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
/'tʃa,gan̪ gɛ n̪ɛk/
We told them to him. Caeltom gaeb ni'ael. say-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
.3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
/'kɛl̪.t̪om gɛv n̪jɛl̪/
I'll give myself to you. Tiágac gae r'aet. give-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
have verb-ed
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
'DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
.2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
/'tʃa.gak gɛ ɾɛt̪/
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