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This public article was written by ZaListios, and last updated on 1 Jun 2019, 23:33.
[comments] vrvlessonslesson 1
1. Lesson #1
2. Lesson #2Vistheimian verbs
verbs are actions or doing words and can change tense.
The word order of this Vistheimian is VSO so verbs always go first.1
Here we will learn how to change tense and mood of regular verbs.2
Verbs found in the dictionary. They can go directly after another conjugated verb.
eg. "eolsyja" - "to love"
base form - nonpast
To create the base form some vowels change:
"eȯ"/"eo" > "a"
"ii" > "i"
The base form is the non past so could refer to either the future or the present
If non of these vowels are present then the base form is the same as the infinitive.
eg. "eolsyja" -> "alseja"
"za" form - near future
"za" means "in" however can be used to modify the base form to make the near future
It goes directly after the base form.
eg. "alseja" -> "alseja za"
"ii" form - future/conditional
"ii" is put on the end of a clause to put the base form into the future or conditional tense.
Context determines which form it is. Another use of this is to say something is something.
To do this you don't use a verb at the start. 3
eg. "alseja" -> "alseja ... ii".
"ny" form - present continuous
works the same way as the "ii" form. "ny" literally means now.
This is used if something is actively happening.
eg. "alseja" -> "alseja ... ny".
This mood suggests you "could" do something to form this you add "se(n)-" onto the start of the base form.
If the base form starts with a vowel put an "n" as well as the "se" at the start3
eg. "alseja" -> "Senalseja"
It is similar to the hypothetical mood in formation only it the affix is "zȯ"/"zon" depending on the first letter. It suggests the person may do something 3
eg. "alseja" -> "Zonalseja"
The past stem is never actually used however it is necessary to form the perfect and imperfect/habitual past.
all you do is simply take of the last vowel of the base verb. some verbs do not end in vowels so leave them
the same. Another rule to note is some constinents and vowels change in this form however are not usually written:
"s" > "z" /ts/ initial4
"b" > "p" /ph/ initial
"b" > "p" if followed by "o"/"ȯ"/"a"/"e"
"b" > "h" in all other cases
"p" > "h" this one is unpredictable but generally only on the initial constinent
"d" > "t"
"ȯa" > "a"
"e" > "y"5 not the initial and not before "j"
note that constinent changes happen before vowel changes
eg. "alseja" -> "alsej"
perfect past tense
This is used when you did something at a specific point in time. To conjugate the verb add "-ȯa" to the end of the past stem.
However if ending in "u" > "ua"
eg. "alsej" -> "alsejȯa"
imperfect past tense/ habitual past
Used if talking about how you did something over a period of time in the past or you used to do it.
To conjugate the verb add "-on" to the end of the past stem.
However "u" becomes "um" but not if ending in "ju", "mu","k", "g".
If ending in "lu" it becomes "leum"
eg. "alsej" -> "alsejon"
To negate a verb simply put "nai" onto the end of the sentence. this is the last thing a sentence could end with
and goes after "ii" and "ny".
To know the man
Ytemu ȯ aaka.
I know the man/I will know the man
Etemu ce ȯ aaka.
I will know the man (soon)/I am going to know the man (soon)
Etemu za ce ȯ aaka.
I will know the man/I would know the man
Etemu ce ȯ aaka ii.
I would have known the man
Etemua ce ȯ aaka ii.
I am the man
Ce ȯ aaka ii.
I am knowing the man
Etemu ce ȯ aaka ny.
I have known the man/I knew the man
Etemua ce ȯ aaka.
I used to know the man
Etemon ce ȯ aaka.
I should know the man
Senetemu ce ȯ aaka.
I should have known the man.
Senetemua ce ȯ aaka.
I may know the man
Zonetemu ce ȯ aaka.
I may have known the man.
Zonetemua ce ȯ aaka.
Tag nai on the end of these for negatives of these sentences.
1 sentences that have to be, to go, to have and a few other random irregular verbs follow a SOV pattern. For instance "I am free" becomes "I free am" not "am I free" in these cases.
2 adding words "ii", "ny" and "za" follow regular patterns for irregular verbs.
3 Conditional, Hypothetical and Potential moods can be combined with the perfect past tense to say you "could/would/may have" done something. It is even possible to combine them with the imperfect past tense as well.
4 This is undone if 3 occurs.
5 This only happens if the vowel was changed the other way during the formation of the base form.