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Middle Kwang Grammar
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when analytic is complex
This public article was written by dendana, and last updated on 20 Jan 2019, 01:28. Editing of this article is shared with Qollab.

[comments] [history] Menu 1. Introduction 2. Personal pronouns 3. Classifiers 4. Nominal possession 5. Noun phrase 6. Clauses 7. Post-topic particles 8. Clause-final particles 9. Negation 10. Complement clauses 11. Relative clause
[top]Introduction

This is a sketch grammar of  Middle Kwang, the primary language of what is now Qonklaks around 800 CE. It is the ancestor of  Standard Kwang and  Unknown [WQW].

[top]Personal pronouns

Informal, neutral

This set of pronouns is used when the speaker and addressee are of similar status and are well acquainted.

SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymologyPLPlural (number)
more than one/few
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymology
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
thàwsangangthã ù 'your friend',
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
in possessive
thàw aqungwangthàw + aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
),
1PEFirst person plural exclusive (person)
we (exclusive)
in possessive
1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
ma aqu mangwang mama 1IUnknown code + aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
),
1PEFirst person plural exclusive (person)
we (exclusive)
+ 1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
in possessive
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
diùdiProto-Kwang 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
di aqù aqdi aq2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
+ aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
)

Informal, respectful

This register is used between people of different status who are close, for example children with their parents.

The person lower in status uses the following set of pronouns:

SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymologyPLPlural (number)
more than one/few
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymology
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
mỳjmỳjmỳjjàng mỹ ì 'your doing'mỳj aqmỳj aqmỳj aqmỳj + aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
), 1EFirst person exclusive (person)
I/we but not you
in possessive
1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
ma aqu mangwang mama 1IUnknown code + aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
),
1PEFirst person plural exclusive (person)
we (exclusive)
+ 1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
in possessive
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
iìiProto-Kwang 2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
i aqì aqi aq2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
+ aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
)

The person higher in status uses the following set of pronouns:

SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymologyPLPlural (number)
more than one/few
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymology
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
ngsangangProto-Kwang 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
ngaqungwang1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
+ aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
), 1PEFirst person plural exclusive (person)
we (exclusive)
in possessive
1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
ma aqu mangwang mama 1IUnknown code + aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
),
1PEFirst person plural exclusive (person)
we (exclusive)
+ 1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
in possessive
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
diùdiProto-Kwang 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
di aqù aqdi aq2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
+ aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
)

Third persons are referred to by classifiers or titles.

Formal

This register is used between people who are not well acquainted, at court, and at school.

The first person exclusive is expressed with the following set of pronouns:

SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymologyPLPlural (number)
more than one/few
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.ALIENUnknown code
etymology
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
mỳjmỳjmỳjjàng mỹ ì 'your doing'mỳj aqmỳj aqmỳj aqmỳj + aq (G2Gender 2 (gender/class).POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
), 1EFirst person exclusive (person)
I/we but not you
in possessive

Note that the inclusive pronouns are not used, being replaced by explicit expressions like zaj za zy mỳj 'teacher and I'. Second and third persons are referred to by titles (if human) or classifiers (if nonhuman).

[top]Classifiers

Classifiers are used to join demonstrative and quantifiers to noun phrases, and additionally to allow demonstratives and quantifiers to stand alone as their own noun phrases (in this latter construction, the classifier follows the demonstrative and quantifier).

formetymologyincludes
ngy'person'humans (singular)
aq3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
humans (plural)
ñhung'woman'women (singular or plural), interchangeable with ngy/aq for women
ko'part'body parts, parts of whole, cloth, paper, leaves
niG3Gender 3 (gender/class)large land vertebrates, dogs, cats (singular)
riG6Gender 6 (gender/class)land vertebrates of all sizes (plural)
heG5Gender 5 (gender/class)small land vertebrates (singular)
ri'tree'trees, wood
ku'fruit'fruits, nuts, melons
'rhizome'roots, rhizomes, tubers, portions of grain, dumplings
ngung'flower'flowers, candles, crowns
ty'stone'jagged stones, mollusks, insects, grains, seeds, stars
mjang'head'round things (not including heads), corpses, lotus seed pods
maq'stick'long things, roads, belts, borders, bridges
tsjang'metal'tools, nonprecious metals and metal containers
yngG7Gender 7 (gender/class)floppy things, marine animals, bags
raq'to wind'short cylindrical things, wheels, wheeled vehicles, scrolls, months, years, lives
phang'place'areas, countries
ñhã'house'ceramics, wooden containers, baskets, shells, husks, boats, buildings, official positions, families
jàngNMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
instances of activities, dynasties
nhaG8Gender 8 (gender/class)liquids, bodies of water, masses, swarms, fire
nha'treasure'valuables such as precious metals, gemstones, and artifacts
phaq'group'groups, sets, outfits, armies, songs, poems
tuG9Gender 9 (gender/class)generic


[top]Nominal possession

If the possessor is a personal possessive pronouns, no other explicit linking particle is needed. Otherwise:

If the possessee is inanimate, a possessor is preceded by tjà if the possessor does not have a classifier in it; otherwise it begins with Ø if the possessor begins in CL, or CL if the possessor has CL but does not begin with it.

If the possessee is a human, the possessor takes ti.

If the possessee is an animal, the possessor takes ñùng ‘animal’ if the possessor is human, else tjà.

[top]Noun phrase

The noun phrase follows the order:

(demonstrative) (quantifier) (monosyllabic adjective) (classifier) noun (ti adjective) (possessive phrase) (ti relative.clause)

The classifier is obligatory if anything precedes the head in the noun phrase; it may also be used alone to express ‘one’ or a specific indefinite.

[top]Clauses

Clauses follow the orders:

S P V O X T or
O P S V X T or
X P S V O T

...where P is a post-topic particle, X is an oblique argument, and T is clause-final particles

[top]Post-topic particles

Post-topic particles are obligatory in main clauses, but are optional in other clauses.

formmeaningetymology
njiTOPTopic (syntactic)
the topic (key reference point) of a sentence
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
G7Gender 7 (gender/class) + PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
.STAVStative aspect (aspect)
ongoing but not changing
.REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
njìTOPTopic (syntactic)
the topic (key reference point) of a sentence
.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.IRRIrrealis
mood
.NFUTNon-future (tense)
past and present
(also used for imperatives and hortatives)
G7Gender 7 (gender/class) + PROGProgressive (aspect)
be verb-ing
.STAVStative aspect (aspect)
ongoing but not changing
.IRRIrrealis
mood
nyjTOPTopic (syntactic)
the topic (key reference point) of a sentence
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
G7Gender 7 (gender/class) + PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
nỳjTOPTopic (syntactic)
the topic (key reference point) of a sentence
.FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
G7Gender 7 (gender/class) + FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
tỹnew topic'now'
wỳadditive focus'also'
zyplural emphasis'and'
žurestrictive focus'only'
nominal copula / IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
.FOCFocus (syntactic)
shows new or contrastive information
'be'
ỳjcombining IRRIrrealis
mood
(after a non-topic particle)
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech


[top]Clause-final particles

These particles are not obligatory in any clause.

formmeaningetymology
paqNEGNegative (polarity)
not
(same)
làwPFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
'finish'
qãwwith present relevance'already'
ØIMPImperative (mood)
command
(impolite)
mhỹIMPImperative (mood)
command
(neutral)
(same)
sãwHORTHortative (mood)
'let's...'
(impolite)
'come out'
maHORTHortative (mood)
'let's...'
(neutral)
1PIFirst person plural inclusive (person)
we (inclusive)
wàwSUBJUnknown code (in irrealis) / HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
(in realis)
SUBJUnknown code
ang tsajcan(same)
bjang tsajcannot(same)
bjang laqFUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not


[top]Negation

A few verbs take the special particle bjang, sometimes with suppletion.

bjang ti ‘not be’ (suppletive)
bjang na nga 'not know' (suppletive)
bjang na ‘not have’

Otherwise it is handled with the paq final particle; paq may also be inserted after a non-final noun phrase for emphatic negation.

[top]Complement clauses

The complementizer is pyng, from 'to say', which precedes the complement clause.

[top]Relative clause

Relative clauses all follow gapping, and only subject or object extraction is allowed.

Example:
è
this
ñhã
CLClassifier
quantifies and/or replaces nouns

COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
ñhã
house
ti
RELRelative
taq
older.sibling
sa
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.INALInalienable (possesson)
thing that can't be gained or lost
nyj
TOPTopic (syntactic)
the topic (key reference point) of a sentence
.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
qeng
buy
làw
PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

'This is the house which my older sibling bought. (informal, equal status)'
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on 20/01/19 01:28+5dendanaclarification of ni classifier
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