cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Magralgarlu Grammar
7▲ 7 ▼ 0
The polysynthetic grammar of Magralgarlu predications
This public article was written by Callum Cooper Nissen, and last updated on 29 May 2017, 18:06. Editing of this article is shared with Polylangers.

[comments] [history]
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.
For more information about orthography and ethnography, see  Morganian

Links to articles on terminology used in this article are provided in the appendix

Lexemes

Magralgarlu grammar has a single lexical part of speech. Every lexeme represents a concept and may have any number of cases, which are specific thereto and represent attributive concepts that contribute to the meaning of the lexeme. Phonetically, each lexeme is a sequence of consonants or consonant clusters. The cases of lexemes are represented between the items of such sequences. "i" [UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
: uc. (No conscript set up)] is infixed to unoccupied cases. Occupants of cases are infixed thereto, prefixed by "a" [AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
], and suffixed by "u" [AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
: <con=MGGUnknown code>a.</con>]. Complete predications are suffixed by "u" [FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
: <con=MGGUnknown code>for.</con>] or "a" [FAMFamiliar (respect)
with friends, family, peers
] in the formal and informal registers, respectively. As words may need extra syllables in addition to those representing cases for the sake of phonetic diversity, syllables in lexical sequences at which no cases are represented are infixed by "e" [NGUnknown code]. The identity of a lexeme changes to that of a case thereof when "oa" [LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
] is infixed to the syllable at which that case is represented.

Example 1: lexemes and cases

English:
"I like money."


In this sentence, there are three lexemes, "I", "like", and "money". The Magralgarlu equivalent of "like", "lirimu"[liking<UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
: h.ai.uc.uc.af.for. (No conscript set up)], has two cases: the liker, first, and the liked, second. The Magralgarlu equivalent of "money" is a case of the equivalent of "purchase", "kirpitilkinimu" [purchase<UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
: h.ai.uc.uc.uc.uc.uc.af.for. (No conscript set up)], which has five cases: the merchandise, the price, the currency, the seller, and the buyer. To say "money", one infixes "oa" to the second syllable, which represents the price, or money in general. This results in "kirpoatilkinimu" [purchase<UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
: h.ai.lc.uc.uc.uc.af.for. (No conscript set up)], which literally means "that with which one pays". To say "I like money", one infixes "I" ("g") and "money" into the cases of "like". To do so, each case is prefixed by "a", suffixed by "u", and infixed to their corresponding consonants the result is "lagurakirpoatilkinimumu" [liking<AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-i-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
><AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-purchase<UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
>-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
: h.h.a.h.uc.lc.uc.uc.uc.a.a.for. (No conscript set up)].

In common Magralgarlu usage, "I like money." translates to "laguratekumu" [liking<AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-i-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
><AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-teku<NGUnknown code>-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
: h.h.a.h.a.a.for. (No conscript set up)] as "teku" is the standard currency in Magralgarlu.

Magralgarlu:
"lagurakirpoatilkinimumu"
lǝŋurǝkɪrpwatɪlkinimʊmʊ



liking<AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-i-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
><AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-purchase<UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
><UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
>-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations


h.h.a.h.uc.lc.uc.uc.uc.a.a.for. (No conscript set up)



Common Magralgarlu usage:
"laguratekumu"
lǝgurǝtɜkʊmʊ



[liking<AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-i-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
><AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
-teku<NGUnknown code>-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]

h.h.a.h.a.a.for. (No conscript set up)



Determiners

The references of lexemes are specified by a series of optional determinative suffixes. Undetermined lexemes have purely conceptual meaning and do not represent the references thereof. "ao" [DETUnknown code] is infixed between a lexeme and the affixes that determine it and "i" is infixed between determinative affixes. The first affix quantifies the lexeme. Numerical values of the quantifier are specified by sexagecimal digits in order of decreasing degree between which "e" is infixed, endophoric constructions that reference the quantities of other lexemes in the predication, or functions of either. Numerals acting as lexemes are prefixed by "he". The second determinative affix specifies the form in which plural lexemes act as a set. Singular lexemes are unmarked by the second determinative affix. The third specifies the method of allusion to the reference. Indefinite lexemes are unmarked by the third determinative affix. The fourth specifies the mode of the lexeme. Declarative lexemes are unmarked by the fourth determinative affix. The suffixation of "rlg" [NEGNegative (polarity)
not
] to a determiner negates the lexeme thereof while that of "rlm" [EXCExclusionary case (case)
everything except for...
] makes it exclusive, negating all semantic classes outside that thereof. When the first is absent, remaining determinative affixes are preceded by "aoe" rather than "ao". When "oa" changes the identity of a lexeme to a case thereof, "h" is infixed between "oa" and affixes to the assumed identity while affixes to the original lexeme are normally suffixed. "h" [PIPhonetic initiation (phonetic)
starts a phonetic segment
/ PFPhonetic finalisation (phonetic)
ends a phonetic segment
] is also prefixed and suffixed to names and other phonetic lexemes, the syllables of which have no grammatical value. It can also be used as a general exophor [HUnknown code].

Table 1: 1st determinative affix
ValueAffix [gloss]
infinitesimalp [IFTInfinitesimal (quantifier)]
partialt [PTLPartial (quantifier)
nonspecific fraction of a count noun
]
multiplec [PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
]
infinites [IFNInfinite (quantifier)]
universalrl [TOTTotal
all/every
]
indeterminatelr [IDTUnknown code]

Table 2: numeral digits
+ 0+ 6+ 12+ 18+ 24+ 30+ 36+ 42+ 48+ 54
+ 0 k [0Unknown code]ph [6Unknown code]hg [12First person inclusive (person)
speaker and addressee; you and me/us
]
th [18Unknown code]hl [24Unknown code]ch [30Unknown code]hn [36Unknown code]sh [42Unknown code]hm [48Unknown code]hr [54Unknown code]
+ 1 g [1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
]
gp [7Unknown code]gh [13First-and-third person (person)
speaker and third person
]
gt [19Unknown code]gl [25Unknown code]gc [31Unknown code]gn [37Unknown code]gs [43Unknown code]gm [49Unknown code]gr [55Unknown code]
+ 2 l [2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
]
lp [8Unknown code]lg [14Unknown code]lt [20Unknown code]lh [26Unknown code]lc [32Unknown code]ln [38Unknown code]ls [44Unknown code]lm [50Unknown code]lr [56Unknown code]
+ 3 n [3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
]
np [9Unknown code]ng [15Unknown code]nt [21Unknown code]nl [27Unknown code]nc [33Unknown code]nh [39Unknown code]ns [45Unknown code]nm [51Unknown code]nr [57Unknown code]
+ 4 m [4Fourth person (person)
obviative, not present
]
mp [10Unknown code]mg [16Unknown code]mt [22Unknown code]ml [28Unknown code]mc [34Unknown code]mn [40Unknown code]ms [46Unknown code]mh [52Unknown code]mr [58Unknown code]
+ 5 r [5Fifth person (person)
indefinite or generic; one, "they" say that
]
rp [11Internal person (person)
I/you, in your own head
]
rg [17Unknown code]rt [23Second-and-third person (person)
you & he/she/it
]
rl [29Unknown code]rc [35Unknown code]rn [41Unknown code]rs [47Unknown code]rm [53Unknown code]rh [59Unknown code]

Table 3: 2nd determinative affix
ValueAffix [gloss]
distributiveg [DISTRDistributive (case)
'each', 'per'
]
bijectiven [BJTUnknown code]
sequentiativem [SQTUnknown code]

Unordered lexemes are random sets without internal organization. An example thereof would be a random collection of rocks. Ordered lexemes are sets with internal nonsequential organization. An example thereof would be the organs in the body of an animal. Sequential lexemes are sequences with specific order. An example thereof would be steps in a laboratory procedure or finalists in a competition. When ordered and sequential lexemes are used in a predication, each item in one order or sequence corresponds to another in another and each set of corresponding items indicates a separate occurrence of the predication. The English analog to the function Magralgarlu orders and sequences is the word "respectively".

Table 4: 3rd determinative affix
ValueAffix [gloss]
definiterl [DEFDefinite
"the"
]
proximallr [PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
]

Table 5: 4th determinative affix
ValueAffix [gloss]
irrealisl [IRRIrrealis
mood
]
interrogativer [QInterrogative
question
]

Example 2: irrealis and interrogative modes and sequentiative form

English:
"Would Ealgarpirl eat each of these kangaroos in a row?"


The constituent lexemes are "Ealgarpirl", a name prefixed and suffixed by "h", "kangaroo" ("kegkeru") determined by "each of these" and "in a row", making it multiple, sequential, and proximal ("aocimilr" [DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
]), and "eat" ("kirinu" [krn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]) determined by "would" stated interrogatively, making it both irrealis and interrogative. It is also sequential as is kangaroo ("aocimilir" [DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
]), indicating that occurrences of "eat" correspond to occurences of "kangaroo". The infixation of "Ealgarpirl" and "each of these kangaroos" ("kegkeraocimilru" [kgKr(NGUnknown code.NGUnknown code).DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]) to "would eat?" ("kirinaocimilir" [krn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
).DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]) results in "kahealgarpirlhurakegkeraocimilrunaocimiliru" [krn(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.PIPhonetic initiation (phonetic)
starts a phonetic segment
.ealgarpirl.PFPhonetic finalisation (phonetic)
ends a phonetic segment
().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr(NGUnknown code. NGUnknown code).DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
].

Magralgarlu:
"kahealgarpirlhurakegkeraocimilrunaocimiliru"
[krn(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.PIPhonetic initiation (phonetic)
starts a phonetic segment
.ealgarpirl.PFPhonetic finalisation (phonetic)
ends a phonetic segment
().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr(NGUnknown code.NGUnknown code).DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.DETUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SQTUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]



Conjunctions

"o" [CJUnknown code] is infixed between lexemes in conjunction, which are followed by "ei" [CJHPRUnknown code] for hypernymic conjunction, which conjuncts the semantic features of items therein and "ie" [CJHLUnknown code] for holonymic conjunction, which conjuncts the references of items therein. Either of these are infixed between said lexemes and the first and second determinative affixes. These affixes affect the lexemes in conjunction rather than the references of the lexemes. Conjunctions embedded in other conjunctions are prefixed by "oho" [CJEUnknown code]. The reference of a conjunction may be determined by infixing "ao" between said conjunction and an additional set of determinative affixes.

Example 3: hypernymic and holonymic conjunction and case derivation

English:
"The big cat and the dingo chased the kangaroo."


The lexemes in this sentence are "big" ("koapamiroanumu" [kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]), "cat" ("mernenu"), "dingo" ("mretkeru"), "kangaroo", and "chase" ("mirkicu" [mrKc(AModifier
adjective, adverb, etc
.AModifier
adjective, adverb, etc
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]). "big" is formed by the infixing of "great" ("miroanu" [mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]), formed by infixing "oa" to the second case of "greater than" ("mirinu" [mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]), to the second case of "size" ("kipimu" [kpm(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]), the first case of which is infixed by "oa". "big" and "cat" form a hypernymic conjunction resulting in "big cat" ("mernenokoapamiroanumeilu" [mrNn().CJUnknown code.kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]). "The" is a determiner thereof, making it one, singular, indefinite, and declarative ("aogirl" [DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DEFDefinite
"the"
]). "the" is also a determiner of "dingo", forming "the dingo" ("mretkeraogirlu" [mRtKr.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]). "The big cat" and "the dingo" form a holonymic conjunction resulting in "The big cat and the dingo" ("mernenokoapamiroanumeilaogomretkeraogielaoerlu" [mrNn().CJUnknown code.kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.mRtKr().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.DEFDefinite
"the"
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]). Because "the" modifies both "big cat" and "dingo", the definite determiner can modify the holonymic conjunction rather than each item therein. However, the first and second determinative affixes are always specific to their lexemes. This holonymic conjunction and "kangaroo" occupy the cases of "chase" ("mamernenokoapamiroanumeilaogomretkeraogielirlurkakegkerucu" [mrKc(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrNn().CJUnknown code.kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.mRtKr().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]). The past tense is indicated by the hypernymic conjunction of "chase" and "before now" ("roakakilmaogilrultu" [rklT(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.klM().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
] or "roakakoahaolrumaogultu" [rkLt(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.klM(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.DETUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
).DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]), the cases of which are former and latter, respectively, forming "mamernenokoapamiroanumeilaogomretkeraogielirlurkakegkerucoroakakilmaogilrulteilu" [mrKc(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrNn().CJUnknown code.kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.mRtKr().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJUnknown code.rklT(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.klM().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
] or "mamernenokoapamiroanumeilaogomretkeraogielirlurkakegkerucoroakakoahaolrumaogulteilu" [mrKc(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrNn().CJUnknown code.kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.mRtKr().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJUnknown code.rklT(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.klM(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.DETUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
).DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]. "now" is formed by affixing the one and proximal determiners to "time" ("kilmu") forming "kilmaogilru" [klM().DET.1.PROX.FOR], which literally means "this time". The proximal determiner may also be affixed to the case thereof, forming "koahaoelrumaogu" [klM(LC.DET.PROX.AF).DET.1.FOR], which literally means "the time at which this (the present) happens". "now" is infixed to the latter case, while "oa" is infixed to the former case, changing the identity of the lexeme to that thereof.

The common words for big and the past tense are "relku" and "lernu", respectively. More complicated versions thereof were used for exemplary purposes.

Magralgarlu:
"mamernenokoapamiroanumeilaogomretkeraogielirlurkakegkerucoroakakilmaogilrulteilu"
[mrKc(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrNn().CJUnknown code.kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.mRtKr().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJUnknown code.rklT(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.klM().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]
or
"mamernenokoapamiroanumeilaogomretkeraogielirlurkakegkerucoroakakoahaolrumaogulteilu"
[mrKc(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrNn().CJUnknown code.kpm(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrn(UCUnoccupied case (case)
no ARG in slot/case
.LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.mRtKr().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJUnknown code.rklT(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.klM(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.DETUnknown code.PROXProximal (proximity)
close to speaker
).DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]

Common Magralgarlu usage:
"mamernenorelkeilaogomretkeraogeilirlurkakegkerucolerneilu"
[mrKc(AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.mrNn().CJUnknown code.rlK().CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.mRtKr().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.DEFDefinite
"the"
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
.AIArgument initialisation (case)
marks beginning of ARG
.kgKr().AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).CJUnknown code.lrN().CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]

(audio coming soon lol this is damn hard to pronounce)


Relative Clauses

Relative clauses are formed by affixes that infix between the independent and relative clauses thereafter. Conjunctions of relative clauses in different relations to an independent clause are prefixed by "aeoa" [CJRLUnknown code] and suffixed thereto.

Table 6: relative clauses
RelationInfix [gloss]
hypernymyae [HPRUnknown code]
holonymyoe [HLUnknown code]
synonymy aea [SNUnknown code]
identity oeo [IDUnknown code]
hyponymy ea [HPOUnknown code]
meronymyeo [MRUnknown code]

Example 4: hypernymy, hyponymy, and holonymic conjunction

English:
"A square is a rectangle and not all rectangles are squares."


The lexemes in this sentence are "square" ("kirteku"), determined by "a" ("kirtekaogu" [krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]), and "rectangle" ("kitriku"), also determined by "a" ("kitrikaogu" [krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]). "is" includes the semantic feature of "a square" in that of "a rectangle". The qualitative inclusion is formed by the infixation of "ae" between "kirtekaogu" and "kitrikaogu" resulting in "kirtekaogaekitrikaogu" [krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPRUnknown code.ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]. The next item in the conjunction is identical to the first except in that it uses reversed qualitative inclusion, forming "kitrikaogeakirtekaogu" [ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPOUnknown code.krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
] which, in holonymic conjunction with "kirtekaogaekitrikaogu" forms "kirtekaogaekitrikaogokitrikaogeakirtekaogielu" [krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPRUnknown code.ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPOUnknown code.krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
].

The latter item in the conjunction is not literally translated for exemplary purposes. Had it been, the resulting sentence would be "kirtekaogaekitrikaogokitrikaogaekirtekaogirlgielu" [krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPRUnknown code.ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPRUnknown code.krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
], which mathematically is not always true.

Magralgarlu:
"kertekaogaeketrekaogoketrekaogeakertekaogielu"
[krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPRUnknown code.ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJUnknown code.ktRk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.HPOUnknown code.krTk().DETUnknown code.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.CJHLUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
]



Endophora

Endophoric lexemes are prefixed and suffixed by "v" and consist of a series of affixes that navigate from the grammatical position of the endophora to that of the reference. Affixes that navigate from a lexeme to a case thereof [LECLexeme to case (endophora)
from case to its LEX
] are formed by "i" infixed between the the consonant or consonant clusters between which that case is represented. "e" is prefixed to such affixes. Affixes that navigate from a conjunction to an item therein [CEIConjunction to item (endophora)
NUM references item in conjunction
] are formed by a numeral of the order of the item in the conjunction prefixed by "o".

Table 7: Endophors
LocationReferenceEndophoric Affix [gloss]
lexemereferenceug [LERLexeme to reference (endophora)
Navigates from LEX to REFR
]
caselexemean [CELCase to lexeme (endophora)
from case to LEX
]
lexemenumeralum [LENLexeme to numeral (endophora)
from LEX to NUM
]
numerallexemeam [NELNumeral to lexeme (endophora)
from NUM to LEX
]
itemconjunctionag [IECItem to conjunction (endophora)
from item in conjunction to its CONJ
]
hyponymhypernymul [EHPRUnknown code]
meronymholonymur [EHLUnknown code]
hypernymhyponymurl [EHPOUnknown code]
holonymmeronymulr [EMRUnknown code]
relative clauseindependent clausearlg [REUnknown code]

Example 5: hypernymy, hypernymic conjunction, and endophora

English:
"A square is a rectangle with equal sides."


The cases of "square" and "rectangle" are their side lengths. Equating one case of "rectangle" to the other requires endophora in the latter case thereof that references the former. "equals" ("lilu") is used to equate the latter case to this endophora, which is infixed to the case thereof, resulting in "kirtekaekitroahaeloahovaganalanekitveiluluku" [krTk.HPRUnknown code.ktRk(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.HPRUnknown code.ll(LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
.CJUnknown code.IECItem to conjunction (endophora)
from item in conjunction to its CONJ
.CELCase to lexeme (endophora)
from case to LEX
.REUnknown code.CELCase to lexeme (endophora)
from case to LEX
.kt(LECLexeme to case (endophora)
from case to its LEX
).CJHPRUnknown code.TOTTotal
all/every
.AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
).FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations
: h.a.hpr.h.lc.hpr.h.cj.lc.iec.cel.re.cel.h.lec.uc.a.cjhpr.tot.a.a.for. (No conscript set up)]

Magralgarlu:
"kirtekaekitroahaeloahovaganalanekitveiluluku"
kɪɹtɜkajkitɹoǝhajlwǝhoʋǝŋǝnǝlǝnɜkɪtʋɜjlʊlʊkʊ



square-HPRUnknown code-rectangle<LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
-HPRUnknown code-equality<LCCase derivation (derivation)
derives a case from a lexeme
-CJUnknown code-IECItem to conjunction (endophora)
from item in conjunction to its CONJ
-CELCase to lexeme (endophora)
from case to LEX
-REUnknown code-CELCase to lexeme (endophora)
from case to LEX
-side<LECLexeme to case (endophora)
from case to its LEX
>-CJHPRUnknown code-TOTTotal
all/every
-AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
>AFArgument finalisation (case)
marks end of ARG
>-FORFormal (respect)
for formal situations


h.a.hpr.h.lc.hpr.h.cj.lc.iec.cel.re.cel.h.lec.uc.a.cjhpr.tot.a.a.for. (No conscript set up)




Appendix

Lexeme
Case
Argument
Infix
Determiner
Reference
Affix
Suffix
Sexagesimal
Distributive
Bijective
Definite
Proximal
Irrealis
Interrogative
Conjunction
Relative Clause
Semantic feature
Semantic class
Hypernymy and Hyponymy
Holonymy
Meronymy
Endophora
Comments (2)
[link] [quote] 16-Apr-17 15:40
ȦA Priori Conlangers
For those whose languages are as original as them!
 Callum Cooper Nissen 
@Sorry I should make it less dense... the grammar is much more similar to Lojban than to Ithkuil... I'm currently making a more naturalistic language (no crazy infixing, agglutinated cases, tense) called Myarner based on the same grammar... I think I'm basically just gonna duplicate the article for that grammar though.
[link] [quote] 16-Apr-17 12:13
Conlanger
CWS Conlanger
 Sorry 
This is crazy I couldn't understand anything of it
It seems even harder than ithkuil
Edit history
on 29/05/17 18:060Callum Cooper Nissenrelative clauses
on 29/05/17 17:16+128Callum Cooper Nissenrelative clauses
on 22/04/17 17:16-70Callum Cooper Nissengloss
on 15/04/17 20:190Callum Cooper Nissenscript
on 15/04/17 20:18+2Callum Cooper Nissenscript
on 15/04/17 20:08+609Callum Cooper Nissenscript
on 13/04/17 03:24-180Callum Cooper Nissenaudio kiwi6
on 12/04/17 21:20+16Callum Cooper Nissencjrl
on 12/04/17 06:10+16Callum Cooper Nissensyntax
on 12/04/17 06:06+153Callum Cooper Nissensyntax
on 12/04/17 05:41+439Callum Cooper Nissensyntax
on 12/04/17 04:30+4Callum Cooper Nissenformat
on 12/04/17 04:29+521Callum Cooper Nissensyntax
on 12/04/17 02:060Callum Cooper Nissenaudio
on 12/04/17 02:01+741Callum Cooper Nissenaudio
on 11/04/17 16:07+24Callum Cooper Nissenexample 4
on 11/04/17 07:060Callum Cooper Nissenealgarpirl
on 11/04/17 03:420Callum Cooper Nissencapitalisation
on 11/04/17 03:20+243Callum Cooper Nissentitles
on 11/04/17 03:01+7Callum Cooper Nissenformat
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 26-Jun-19 16:17 | Δt: 136.3871ms