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Case in Vandalon
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Case marking on articles, pronouns and nouns
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 1 Aug 2023, 11:11.

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Overview

There are two main classes of words that assume case marking in  Vandalon - definite articles and pronouns: personal, reflexive1 and nominalizer. Nouns in general remain unmarked, though there is a list of exceptions that take case markings in particular situations.

1 When the subject of a clause is a first or second person personal pronoun in Nominative case, corresponding reflexive pronouns coincide with respective personal pronouns in Dative or Accusative.

Articles and pronouns

Definite articles
Definite articles - except for Neuter - have two cases: Direct and Oblique.
DIROBL
Sg. Masc. du [dy] de [dɛ]
Sg. Fem. de [dɛ] du [dy]
Plural dé [de] des [de(.z)]

Definite articles before subjects of any verbal clauses and objects of copular clauses assume the Direct case, in all other positions they take Oblique. The Neuter article, coinciding with Nominalizer, has a 3-case declination as pronouns (see below).

Pronouns
The personal and pronouns pronouns as well as nominalizer/neuter article have three cases: Nominative, Accudative and Accusative
NOMACDOBL
1 Sg. je [ʒə] me [mə] moi [mwa]
2 Sg. tu [ty] te [tə] toi [twa]
3 Sg. Masc. il [il] en [ɑ̃(.n)] en [ɑ̃(.n)]
3 Sg. Fem. ce [sə] elle [iʁ] ci [si]
Neut. Sg. et [e(.t)] en [ɑ̃(.n)] et [e(.t)]
Refl. Sg. - se [sə] soi [swa]
1 Pl. vie [vi] ons [ɔ̃(.z)] ons [ɔ̃(.z)]
2 Pl. y [i] eux [ø(.z)] eux [ø(.z)]
3 Pl. cé [se] ces [ø(.z)] çois [swa(.z)]


Noun cases

Locative marking on nouns
Several words of masculine gender, most most notably for locations such as: land "land", jard "city", trop "village", feud "field", hus "house", pass "path, way", but also sens "sense" may take locative form. Graphically this is indicated by adding -e at the end of the word; phonetically, according to the orthography rules, the final silent consonant becomes vocalized:

land [lɑ̃] - à de lande [a dɛ lɑ̃t] : "to the land";
hus [y] - en de huse [ɑ̃ dɛ ys] : "in the house";
trop [tʁɔ] - au de trope [o dɛ tʁop] : "out of the village";
pass [pas] - en de passe [ɑ̃ dɛ pas] : "in the way, during" (spelling unchanged!);
sens [sɑ̃] - en de sense [ɑ̃ dɛ sɑ̃s] : "in the sense" .

The locative for hus is also employed in the set phrase à-t-huse [atyz] - "at home".

Genitive marking on nouns
In rare cases (see Possession in Vandalon) proper names and select nouns take genitive cases, graphically marked by adding
  • -s after
    • any -CV letter cluster;
    • a -VC cluster other than -Vs, -Vx, -Vz;
    • a -VV cluster other than -Vu;

  • -es after -CC;
  • -x after -Vu;
  • unchanged after -Vs, -Vx, -Vz.


Examples:

Hieude [jøt] - Hilda (proper name) : Hieudes huit duites [jø.tə.z‿ɥi dɥit]- Hilda's eight daughters;
Ventalie [vɑ̃.ta.li] - Vandalia (country name) : Ventalies himbre [vɑ̃.ta.li.z‿ɛ̃bʁ] - Vandalia's skies;
land [lɑ̃(.t)] - land : de landes luit [dɛ lɑ̃.tə lɥi] - people of the land;
dieu [djø] - deity : de dieux étarces [dɛ djø.z‿e.taʁs] - god's powers.
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