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Table of Vrkhazhian roots and their meanings (1 of 3)
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This public article was written by Ahzoh, and last updated on 3 Mar 2017, 19:12.

RootBasic meaningCausativeReflexiveReflexive-CausativeIntensive
ʾ-ž-lmisseemake missee
ʾ-ž-šburn [of food]burn [food]become burnt [of food]
ʾ-k-lplaymake play
ʾ-k-nbe greenmake greenbecome green
ʾ-l-dguard [a settlement]make guard [a settlement]
ʾ-l-bexpose, humiliatemake expose, humiliateexpose, humiliate oneself
ʾ-l-sobserve, surveymake observe, survey
ʾ-l-lseeshowreveal oneself
ʾ-l-nglimpsemake glimpse
ʾ-l-šdetect, noticemake detect, noticenotice, detect oneself
ʾ-m-lwatch [a performance], viewmake watch, view
ʾ-m-šcookmake cookcook [intr.]
ʾ-ḡ-tsailmake sail
ʾ-p-řbe certainmake certainbecome certainconfirm, verify
ʾ-r-hgo eastmake go east
ʾ-š-hburn [intr.] burnburn oneself
ʾ-š-bcombust, be consumed by firecombust [tr.], consume
ʾ-š-sincinerate, scorch
ʾ-š-nsmolder, glowmake smolder, glow
ʾ-š-šmelt [intr.]meltbecome melted
ʾ-š-čto experience vicariouslymake experience vicariously
ʾ-w-dbe shortshorten, shrinkshrink oneself
ʾ-z-rfocus, concentratecatch s.o.'s attentionbecome focused, concentrated
ʾ-ṉ-nto go northmake go north
ḵ-ḵ-pimpale, goremake impale, goreimpale, gore oneself
ḵ-ž-ṭclump togetherclump together [intr.]
ḵ-ṭ-horbit, go aroundmake orbit, go around
ḵ-ṭ-bsmooth, refinemake smooth, refine
ḵ-ṭ-srollroll [intr.]
ḵ-ṭ-ṭroundround [intr.]become round
ḵ-m-ṭknead [dough]make knead
ḵ-m-pwoundmake woundwound [intr.]
ḵ-p-bmincemake mince
ḵ-p-npoke, peckmake poke, peck
ḵ-p-pstabmake stab
ḵ-p-šhook, fishmake hook ,fish
ḵ-r-mbe whitewhitenbecome white
v-ḵ-žbe great, prominentmake great, prominentbecome great, prominent
h-ž-rmispurifymake mispurifybecome cursed
h-ž-qtwist [a limb], twist to death [intr.]twist to death
h-m-rbe pureconsecrateconsecrate oneself
h-m-qdrillmake drill
h-r-bdestroy by purification, purge
h-r-sbe clean [abstract]cleanse, absolvecleanse, absolve oneselfbecome cleansed, absolved
h-r-nbe clean [concrete]clean, batheclean, bathe oneselfbecome clean
h-r-špurifymake purifypurify oneselfbecome purified
h-q-btwist apartmake twist aparttwist apart [intr.]
h-q-lbe yellowmake yellow
h-q-šfasten, tighten [with screws]make fasten, tightenfasten, tighten [like screws]
h-q-qtwistmake twisttwist [intr.]
d-ʾ-lneglectmake neglectneglect oneselfbecome neglected
d-ḵ-kgo southmake go south
d-d-žrivemake rive
d-d-lburrow into, perforatemake burrow into, perforate
d-d-nburdenmake burdenworry oneselfbecome worried
d-s-ṟdo, actactivate, stimulateactivate oneself
d-ž-bdisperse, scattermake disperse, scatterdisperse, scatter [intr.]become dispersed, scattered
d-ž-žseparate, dividemake separate, divideseparate, divide [intr.]become separated, divided
d-ž-ksplit open, fissuremake split open, fissuresplit open [intr.]
d-ž-lcave inmake cave in
d-ž-ncrushmake crushcrush [intr.]
d-ž-šisolate oneselfostracize
d-l-bexcavate, dig aroundmake excavate, dig around
d-l-ldigmake digdig oneself
d-l-nbrush away [dirt]make brush away [dirt]
d-l-šcarve outembedbecome embedded
d-m-žquarantinequarentinebecome quarentined
d-m-ldoubt, be uncertainmake uncertaindoubt oneselfbecome uncertain
d-m-nsleeplulllull oneself
d-n-btrample onmake trample on
d-n-nbe heavymake heavybecome heavy
d-n-šdrag one's heels, trudgehale, bring by force
ẕ-v-mbleed for a while [intr.]bleed for a while
ẕ-ẕ-mbleed intensely [intr.]bleed intensely
ẕ-ž-mbleed to death [intr.]bleed to death
ẕ-y-mbe crimsonmake crimsonbecome crimson
ẕ-g-glament, regretmake lament, regret
ẕ-m-hbleed [intr.]bleed
ẕ-m-bgush [blood]make gush [blood]
ẕ-m-nbleed a little [intr.]bleed a little
ẕ-m-šbleed internally [intr.]bleed internally
b-d-hreadmake read
b-d-nskimmake skim
b-d-šinfer, analyzemake infer, analyze
b-b-dresearchmake research
b-b-lexecutemake execute
b-ž-dmisreadmake misread
b-ž-ldoom, cursemake doom, cursebecome cursed
b-y-rbe greymake greybecome grey
b-g-zbe renowned, famousmake renowned, famousbecome renowned, famous
b-l-hpunish, orbitmake punish, orbitpunish oneself
b-l-nadmonish, scoldmake admonish, scold
b-m-dbe wisemake wisebecome wise
b-m-lflogmake flogself-flagellate
b-ḡ-tswimmake swim
b-r-mglorifymake glorifybecome glorified
b-f-doblige, compelmake oblige, compel
b-š-dspeak formally
b-q-sbe superior, be betterimproveimprove oneself
s-v-mbe long-livedmake long-livedbecome long-lived
s-v-nworkenslavebecome enslavedhammer away
s-d-nbe affectionate, have a crushmake affectionatebecome affectionate
s-d-šfall in lovemake fall in love
s-ẕ-kcomplete, finishmake complete, finishperfect oneself
s-b-bkillmake killcommit suicide
s-b-nkill [s.o.'s hopes, dreams, spirit]crush one's own spirit
s-b-šcommit suicide [literary]drive to suicidebecome driven to suicide
s-s-didolizemake idolizeidolize oneselfbecome idolized
s-s-bslaughter, massacremake slaughter, massacredecimate
s-s-ltake, grab, seize, getmake take, grab, seizetake oneself
s-s-msurvive, make a living
s-s-noperate, do surgerymake operate, do surgerydo surgery on oneself
s-s-ḡage rapidlymake age rapidly
s-s-čreact [of atoms]react [atoms]
s-ž-dpinemake pine
s-ž-baccidentally killmake accidentally killwin the Darwin Awardbecome victimized
s-ž-ltake accidentally
s-ž-mlive poorlymake live poorly
s-ž-nbe overworkedoverworkoverexert oneselfbecome overworked
s-ž-ḡgrow oldmake grow old
s-l-dlovemake love
s-l-bstarvemake starvestarve [intr.]
s-l-lhold [s.t.], halt, stop [intr.]halt, stopstop oneself
s-l-šhold in, repressmake hold in, repressbecome held in, repressed
s-m-bbe disorganizeddisrupt, disorganizebecome disorganized, confused
s-m-bpoisonmake poisonpoison oneselfpollute
s-m-limprison, limitmake imprison, limitimprison, limit oneself
s-m-mlive, existanimate, reviveanimate, revive [intr.]
s-m-ḡferment [intr.]fermentbecome fermented
s-m-šlive, inhabitsettlesettle oneself, colonize
s-m-čgluemake glueglue onto
s-n-bhold apart, break up [a fight]become held apart
s-n-kreach with arms outstretched
s-n-naccept with both hands
s-n-šwear on the handsmake wear on the handsbecome worn on the hands
s-ḡ-bdecay, rot [literary]make decay, rot [literary]become decayed, rotted
s-ḡ-lbe oldmake oldbecome old
s-ḡ-nmaturemake maturecome of age
s-t-ptry, attempttest, challengetest, challenge oneself
s-č-nappend, addmake add, appendsummarize
s-č-šfasten, fix in placefasten, fix in place [intr.]
s-č-čconnect, attach, joinmake connect, attach, joinconnect, attach, join [intr.]
s-ř-tbe in middle of, interceptmake in middle of, intercept
s-ḥ-kbe brownmake brownbecome brown
s-q-rteach [abstract]make teachteach oneself
ž-ž-lrepaymake repay
ž-ž-njudge, decree, convictmake judge, decree, convictjudge oneself
ž-l-lthankmake thank
ž-l-nacknowledge, respectmake acknowledge, respectacknowledge oneselfbecome acknowledged
ž-m-lbe in debt, owe a favourmake in debt, owe a favourbecome indebteddebt bind
ž-m-nstrategizemake strategize
ž-n-kpick out [s.t.]make pick out [s.t.]
ž-n-nchoose, decidemake choose, decide
ž-n-šreason, think by logicmake reason, think by logic
y-h-hbecreate, visualizevisualize oneself
y-h-rrainmake rainrain [intr.]pour, hail
y-ž-ldistortmake distortdistort [intr.]
y-k-hentermake enterwithdraw into [s.t.]become introverted
y-l-khappen, occur, take placearrange, make happen
y-l-lshape, mold, formmake shape, mold, formshape, mold, form oneself
y-m-lsculptmake sculpt
y-m-ḡvibrate [intr.]vibrate
y-ḡ-bshake apart [intr.]shake apart
y-ḡ-squake, shake [of earth]quake, shake [the earth]
y-ḡ-ksiftmake siftsift [intr.]become sifted
y-ḡ-nshudder [intr.]make shudder
y-ḡ-ḡshake, tremble [intr.]shake, make tremble
y-p-dto die for a causemartyrmartyr oneself
k-ḵ-ṭencircle, surround, enclosemake surround, enclosesurround oneself (with things)
k-s-ḡbegin, startencourage, initiateencourage oneself
k-ž-lpraise, applaudmake praise, applaudpraise oneself
k-ž-freceive [the wrong item]give [the wrong item]
k-l-dstation, postmake station, poststation, post oneself
k-m-fbartermake barter
k-n-bhelp, assistmake help, assisthelp, assist oneself
k-ḡ-dsingmake singsing to oneself
k-j-msupportmake supportsupport oneself
k-r-žponder, consideredmake ponder, consider
k-f-hexchangemake exchange
k-f-brun out [of a supply]seige, make run out
k-f-noffermake offeroffer oneself
k-f-šbuy, purchasemake buy, purchasebuy one's freedom
k-f-čsellmake sellsell oneself
k-š-dorate, preach, addressmake orate, preach, addresspreach to the choir
k-š-mbuild, construct [concrete]make build, constructbuild, construct oneself
k-t-pbite, crunchmake bite, crunchbite oneselfclamp down
k-ḥ-lflattenmake flattenflatten [intr.]
g-ž-lmiss, overlookbribe
g-ž-zloommake loom
g-g-lsearch, friskmake search, frisksearch oneself
g-g-zbe chief, principlemake chief, principlebecome chief, principle
g-l-llookmake looklook at oneself
g-l-šinvestigate, inquiremake investigate, inquire
g-m-lstare, linger atmake stare, linger atstare, linger at oneself
g-m-zpioneermake pioneer
g-z-bbe notorious, infamousmake notorious, infamousbecome notorious
g-z-nbe acknowledgedmake acknowledgedbecome acknowledged
g-z-šbe credible, reliablemake credible, reliablebecome credible, reliable
g-z-zbe important, significantmake important, significantbecome important, significant
l-ʾ-kbe able toenableenable oneself
l-d-dprotect, shieldmake protect, shieldprotect oneself
l-d-bkill in defensemake kill in defense
l-d-nsave [someone]make save [someone]save oneself
l-d-šclose oneself off emotionally
l-d-śenter, go inmake enter, go infly into
l-ẕ-ẕbreak, strike, hitmake break, strike, hitbreak [intr.]
l-ẕ-bshatter, splinter, shiver [intr.]shatter, splinter, shiveratomize [intr.]
l-ẕ-kbreak out, set free, emancipatebreak out, break freebecome emancipated
l-ẕ-ncrackmake crackcrack, fracture [intr.]
l-ẕ-šdamage, injure, harm
l-ž-dprotect poorly
l-ž-ẕfracture [a bone]make fracture [a bone]fracture [of a bone]
l-ž-gspoil [of food], displacemake displacebecome displaced
l-ž-ḥlose one's tempermake lose one's temper
l-g-bdisfigure, mar, spoil [food]disfigure, mar oneselfbecome disfigured, marred
l-g-gchange, altermake change, alterchange, alter, switch [intr.]become different
l-g-nmovemake movego, move [intr.]advance [intr.]
l-g-ftransmute [objects]make transmute [objects]transmuted [of objects]become transmuted
l-g-šsubstitute, switchmake substitute, switchswitch [intr.]make [s.o. else] switch
l-l-dtake a stand, hold out, hold backmake hold out, hold back
l-l-ẕsmash, rammake smash, ramsmash [intr.]become damagedpulverize
l-l-gtransform, metamorphose [intr.]transformadapt [intr.]
l-l-ḥbrawl, clashmake brawl, clash
l-m-dguard [an individual]make guard [an individual]
l-m-ẕbuffet [of wind and waves]make buffetbecome buffeted
l-m-gadapt [intr.]adaptbecome adapted
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