Proto-Ulokakhian grammar notes
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The intriguing grammar of Proto-Ulokakhian
This public article was written by Pennzeross, and last updated on 23 Jul 2019, 07:15.
2. Pupu poemIn this article, you'll be impressed (unless you've seen this before) about how complex simple everyday life grammar of Proto-ulokakhian.
I.About the affixes
As you can see, every affixes here are very logical as they are made from plain words turning into affixes.
The structure of a noun affix is number-case.
The structure of a verb affix is tense-subject-object.
In some cases, it can be tense-subject or tense-object if the sentence lacks object(s) and subject(s),respectively. the latter case is highly unlikely to be used because it is used as imperative, and since it's rarely used in the past form (if not, none) due to a critical error in grammar, the tense affix can be omitted (except in formal writings).
II.Subjects and objects
If you look at the tables of verb conjugation and noun declension, you'll see that the grammar is very long and chunky, and it can make a simple sentence ridiculously big. But this is just the tip of the ice berg; there are more rules to this simple table.
If either the subject(s) and/or the object(s) are pronoun(s), they will be omitted.
Yekkulo kxekkupeu pfoflasfaayekkxek. > Pfoflasfaayekkxek. 'I did it.'
Yekkulo baabfahyek. > Baabfahyek. 'I go'.
Yekkupeu soyek! > Soyek! 'help me!'
If the subject(s) and/or the object(s) are noun(s), the corresponding affi(xes) will be omitted instead.
Yulasnakulo lutmorkupeu pfoflasfaakxekkxek. > Yulasnakulo lutmorkupeu pfoflasfaa. 'The man did the assasination.'
Sokulo baabfahkxek. > Sokulo baabfah. 'The horse runs.'
Tuariripeu sokxek! > Tuariripeu so! 'help the offsprings!'
Combined with noun declension, this system works perfectly and can't cause much confusion.
Sokupeu sofahkxek. 'He helps the horse.' (Without knowledge of grammar, people may assume that it means 'the horse helps.')
Regularly, the nominative form of 'yulasna'(man) is 'yulasnakulo'. But to emphasize, there are many different ways you can do it:
1.Emphasis on the quantity/amount
-Omit the number affix and add the corresponding number in the correct syntax.e.g.'yulasnakulo'(the man)->'ku yulasnalo'(one man)
-It could also be done by eliminating the case affix, but only when it doesn't cause confusion. This is mostly done by younglings.e.g.'yulasnakulo'->'yulasnaku'
2.Emphasis on the tense
-This can only be done by omitting the number affix.e.g.'yulasnakulo'->'yulasnalo'
3.Emphasis on noun(s)/verb(s)
-If you want to emphasize a particular noun/verb, you can eliminate all the affixes of the main sentence (excluding direct object(s)) but the focus noun/verb and the pronoun affix(es).
e.g.'Yulasnakulo sokupeu lutfah.'(The man kills the horse.)
'Yulasnakulo so lut.'(Emphasis on the man)
'Yulasna sokupeu lut.'(Emphasis on the horse)
'Yulasna so lutfah.'(Emphasis on the killing)
'Lutfahyekkxek.'(I kill him.)
'Yekkulo lutkxek.'(This is correct)
'Yekkulo lut'(This is wrong)
Poems' rules are very different from the standard grammar:
-All the affixes can be dropped at one point.
-The pronouns, prepositions and particles can be omitted if it doesn't support the poems.
-There is no syntax, so you can place the words in positions that you think fit.
All of these make Proto-Ulokakhian's poems excessively good at expressing the poet's emotions, ideas and sincerety to the readers.
In speech, you're given context of the conversation, so affixes be omitted the same way as in poems.