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Pronouns in Laefêvëši: Adjectival pronouns Part I: Personal pronouns
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This public article was written by Ashucky, and last updated on 25 Jan 2019, 12:29.

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Menu 1. 1. Adjectival pronouns 2. 1.1 Possessive pronouns 3. 1.1.1 Personal possessive pronouns 4. 1.1.2 Reflexive possessive pronouns There are two large classes of pronouns in Laefêvëši: substantival (or nominal) pronouns, and adjectival pronouns. As their name suggests, substantival pronouns replace nouns while adjectival pronouns replace adjectives. Each of these classes has further subdivisions.

This article covers personal adjectival pronouns. For non-personal adjectival pronouns, see here. For substantival pronouns, see here.

[edit] [top]1. Adjectival pronouns

Adjectival pronouns are pronouns that replace adjectives and follow the adjectival inflexion pattern. As with substantival pronouns, there two main groups: personal pronouns and non-personal pronouns.

There are two types of personal pronouns: the possessive personal pronouns and the reflexive personal pronoun. All the other types of non-personal substantival pronouns have their corresponding adjectival pronouns, with a few additional pronouns.

[edit] [top]1.1 Possessive pronouns

The possessive pronouns pronouns indicate the ownership of the head noun, and they are derived from the corresponding substantival personal pronouns.

[edit] [top]1.1.1 Personal possessive pronouns

The personal possessive pronouns inflect like adjectives. There are separate forms for each number, person, and clusivity, but they don't distinguish between animacy, or alienable and inalienable possession. The pronouns do inflect, however, for case and class.

Each possessive pronoun also has several variants: the full form, the oblique form, and two prefixed forms. The full form is typically used with the basic cases, and the oblique form is used with subcases and additional cases. These two forms are generally used predicatively.

The prefixed forms attach to the noun they modify. There are two variants: one is added to nouns that begin in a vowel, and the other is added to nouns beginning in a consonant. If the noun begins in a single consonant, it is usually geminated. The prefixed form is otherwise invariable. The full forms can be used instead of the prefixed form, and often are in more formal texts, but the prefixed forms are preferred. When contrast is emphasised, then the full forms can be used.

The obviative possessive pronoun is somewhat defective as it has only one prefixed form, and the oblique stems are slightly irregular.

PersonClusivitySingularDualPlural
1st personInclusive soiri, sou(r)-; soj-, sjo-hairi, hau(r)-; haj-, hja-njuiri, njuu(r)-; njyj-, njy-
Exclusive xairi, xau(r)-; xaj-, xja-njoiri, njou(r)-; njoj-, njo-
2nd personInclusive seiri, seu(r)-; sej-, sje-tairi, tau(r)-; taj-, tja-pairi, pau(r)-; paj-, pja-
Exclusive dairi, dau(r)-; daj-, dja-bairi, bau(r)-; baj-, bja-
3rd person jairi, jau(r)-; naj-, nja-koiri, kou(r)-; koj-, kjo-jøiri, jøy(r)-; njøj-, njø-
Obviative lîsiri, lîsu-/lîsr-; lis-


Examples of usage:
  • Lallai njammiveu.
    I saw his cat.

  • Pol njørrik ás.
    That's their house.

  • Tjannarau tinnoiksi.
    They didn't find your books.

  • Tajatasse sjohlelostost.
    She agrees with my suggestions.

  • Tajatasse njahlelostost, ēkki lîsrost.
    She agrees with her suggestions but not with his.

  • Tajatasse jaurost hlelostost, ēkki lîsrost. (the possessive pronoun is further emphasised)
    She agrees with her suggestions but not with his.

  • Luiri naról ás? - Soiri.
    Whose books is this? - Mine.

  • Luiri nareu ksinnain? - Kourve.
    Whose book did you steal? - Theirs.


[edit] [top]1.1.2 Reflexive possessive pronouns

The reflexive possessive pronoun is used in much the same fashion as its substantival counterpart.

Forms: nîjiri, nîu(r)-; nîj-, njî-

Examples of usage:
  • Mollai njînnifeu.
    I stroked my dog.

  • Nîjesiewallu pai gaittaksi.
    You don't claim this in your articles.

  • Luurte nareu šillain? - Nîjurte.
    Whose book did you take? - Mine.


The possessive reflexive pronouns becomes very useful with third person subjects. Compare the following two examples:
  • Teil trâttais najîxde li lwōttais.
    The boy grabbed his (=someone else's) bag and ran away.

  • Teil trâttais nîjîxde li lwōttais.
    The boy grabbed his (own) bag and ran away.


In dual and plural, even more distinctions can be made. Compare the following three examples:
  • Aisont u Ʒerend vi sanneis nîjestvozurs.
    Aisont and Ʒerend were telling me about their (own) travels.

  • Aisont u Ʒerend vi sanneis pajestvozurs.
    Aisont and Ʒerend were telling me about their (=two other people's) travels.

  • Aisont u Ʒerend vi sanneis nøjestvozurs.
    Aisont and Ʒerend were telling me about their (=other people's) travels.


In singular, a similar distinction can be made with the obviative pronoun as well:
  • Aeklavi lallais nîjurte li jaurte miveu, ēkki lîsurta.
    Aeklavi saw his (own) and his (=someone else's) cat, but not his (=a non-present person's) cat.


When it comes to body parts or other cases of obvious ownership, or if the context provides enough information to unambiguously determine the ownership, the pronoun can be omitted:
  • Nif iipleonnais viēnot.
    The dog wagged its tail.

  • Jarralais vates.
    She opened her eyes.


The possessive reflexive pronoun can also be used to denote approximation:
  • Haǯi nîjurva liala urava ašissás.
    The cave is about thirty metres deep.

  • Enna nîjurva luela (erova).
    He's about fifty (years old).
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