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Verb conjugations, affixes, and stuff
This public article was written by juxlus, and last updated on 13 Dec 2016, 10:48.
Periphery verbs have several affix and auxilliary slots in this pattern:
[Auxilliary] ... - VERB - tense - aspect - mood
Auxilliary terms serve various functions, including evidentials, interrogative, and imperative. They occur before the verb or before the phrase they apply to. The evidentials are used to state the speaker's relation to the truth of the statement being made. It is left empty when no evidential explanation is wanted. There are four evidentials—one for direct, firsthand evidence, and three for indirect evidence. These are called Witness (WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action), Inferential (INFRInferential (mood/evidential)
reports or infers without confirming), Hearsay (HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'), and Assumptive (ASSAssumptive (mood/evid)
speaker witnessed action
|kmii||Evidential: Direct firsthand knowledge, experience, perception. In past tense might be like "I remember that...". In future tense it is more like "I expect that..." or "I expect to experience...". In present tense it is more like "I am experiencing..."|
reports or infers without confirming
|dle||Evidential: Indirect evidence. It seems that..., it appears that..., obviously..., it must be that..., I infer that..., I conclude that..., etc. It can also be used to indicate a conjecture; "I wonder..."|
|ska||Evidential: Indirect evidence. suppose without proof, presume, hypothesize, postulate, guess, believe, speculate, opine, In my opinion..., etc.|
|Hearsay||HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)|
'I have heard that...'
|xsae||Evidential: Indirect evidence, secondhand or more; quotative, reportative. allegedly..., reportedly..., it is said that..., etc|
|Interrogative||INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)|
Tense suffixes are added after the verb stem. Present tense is unmarked.
|Remote Past||REMRemote past (tense)|
'a long time ago'
|qxo||Before "awakening of people", or before world creation; or more vaguely "mythical time long ago"|
|Past||PASTPast tense (tense)|
action occurred before moment of speech
|Present||PRESPresent tense (tense)|
action occurring after the moment of speech
|lii, li, le||Future tense|
common, timeless truths
|nro||Gnomic tense, for "timeless truths"|
Aspect suffixes are added after the tense. Simple aspect is unmarked.
a simple form (cf. compound form, eg. phrasal verb)
|Ø||Simple: basic action of the verb (null form)|
beginning of an action
|bi, bii||Inceptive: beginning of an action/state|
exiting/ending a state
|fi, fii||Cessative: ending/exiting an action/state|
continuous or durational action
|gwo||Continuous: actions that are continuous/durational|
|mlo||Perfective: completed actions|
Mood suffixes are added after the aspect. Declarative mood is unmarked.
a common realis mood
|Ø||Declarative: simple realis mood|
|ruu||Abilitative: Can, able to, could, may, capable of, etc.|
|Necessitative||NCSSNecessitative mood (mood)|
must, have to
|muu||Necessitative: must, have to|
|Suggestive||SUGGSuggestive mood (mood)|
suggestion, 'should', 'ought'
|vae||Suggestive: should, ought, suggestion, hortative, "let's..."|
|tse, tsi, tswii||Optative: wish, hope, desire|
|Subjunctive||SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)|
desired or possible events
|jo||Subjunctive: desired/possible events|