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Periphery Verbs
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Verb conjugations, affixes, and stuff
This public article was written by juxlus, and last updated on 13 Dec 2016, 10:48.

[comments] Menu 1. Introduction 2. Auxilliary Verbs 3. Tense 4. Aspect 5. Mood

Periphery verbs have several affix and auxilliary slots in this pattern:

[Auxilliary] ... - VERB - tense - aspect - mood

[top]Auxilliary Verbs

Auxilliary terms serve various functions, including evidentials, interrogative, and imperative. They occur before the verb or before the phrase they apply to. The evidentials are used to state the speaker's relation to the truth of the statement being made. It is left empty when no evidential explanation is wanted. There are four evidentials—one for direct, firsthand evidence, and three for indirect evidence. These are called Witness (WITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
), Inferential (INFRInferential (mood/evidential)
reports or infers without confirming
), Hearsay (HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'
), and Assumptive (ASSAssumptive (mood/evid)
assumed truth

WitnessWITWitness (evidential)
speaker witnessed action
kmiiEvidential: Direct firsthand knowledge, experience, perception. In past tense might be like "I remember that...". In future tense it is more like "I expect that..." or "I expect to experience...". In present tense it is more like "I am experiencing..."
InferentialINFRInferential (mood/evidential)
reports or infers without confirming
dleEvidential: Indirect evidence. It seems that..., it appears that..., obviously..., it must be that..., I infer that..., I conclude that..., etc. It can also be used to indicate a conjecture; "I wonder..."
AssumptiveASSAssumptive (mood/evid)
assumed truth
skaEvidential: Indirect evidence. suppose without proof, presume, hypothesize, postulate, guess, believe, speculate, opine, In my opinion..., etc.
HearsayHSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'
xsaeEvidential: Indirect evidence, secondhand or more; quotative, reportative. allegedly..., reportedly..., it is said that..., etc
InterrogativeINTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
asks questions
waaMood: Question
ImperativeIMPImperative (mood)
zgiiMood: Command


Tense suffixes are added after the verb stem. Present tense is unmarked.

Remote PastREMRemote past (tense)
'a long time ago'
qxoBefore "awakening of people", or before world creation; or more vaguely "mythical time long ago"
PastPASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
taaPast tense
PresentPRESPresent tense (tense)
ØPresent tense
FutureFUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
lii, li, leFuture tense
GnomicGNOGnomic (aspect/mood)
common, timeless truths
nroGnomic tense, for "timeless truths"


Aspect suffixes are added after the tense. Simple aspect is unmarked.

SimpleSMPLSimple (class)
a simple form (cf. compound form, eg. phrasal verb)
ØSimple: basic action of the verb (null form)
InceptiveINCEPInceptive (aspect)
beginning of an action
bi, biiInceptive: beginning of an action/state
CessativeCESCessative (aspect)
exiting/ending a state
fi, fiiCessative: ending/exiting an action/state
ContinuousCONTContinuative (tense/aspect)
continuous or durational action
gwoContinuous: actions that are continuous/durational
PerfectivePFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
mloPerfective: completed actions


Mood suffixes are added after the aspect. Declarative mood is unmarked.

DeclarativeDECLDeclarative (mood)
a common realis mood
ØDeclarative: simple realis mood
AbilitativeABILAbilitative (mood)
expresses ability
ruuAbilitative: Can, able to, could, may, capable of, etc.
NecessitativeNCSSNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
muuNecessitative: must, have to
SuggestiveSUGGSuggestive mood (mood)
suggestion, 'should', 'ought'
vaeSuggestive: should, ought, suggestion, hortative, "let's..."
OptativeOPTOptative (mood)
'wish, hope'
tse, tsi, tswiiOptative: wish, hope, desire
SubjunctiveSBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
joSubjunctive: desired/possible events

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