cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Gullu City Dialect
1▲ 1 ▼ 0
黒市方言
This public article was written by StrawberryMilk, and last updated on 22 Apr 2020, 19:38.

[comments]
3. Gau'i
6. Gullu


Gullu City Dialect (黒市方言, gullu-shi puang-ngyang) is a dialect of Mikyoan spoken on Gullu Island, particularly in lower-income communities and highly urbanized areas. Similar to Ishigagi City Dialect, Gullu City Dialect is a relatively recent innovation. Gullu City Dialect was first recorded in the 1940s and since has become a distinct dialect of Mikyoan. Gullu City Dialect is more heavily influenced by modern forms of Spanish, Japanese, and English than other dialects and has a more simple consonant inventory but a more rich vowel inventory.

Gullu City Dialect's use is heavily concentrated in the Eastern and Southern coastal areas and South-Central communities of Gullu, particularly by communities of Lyko and African Mikyoans as well as low income Pacific Islander Mikyoans and Asian Mikyoans.

Gullu City Dialect is classified as a Central Mikyoan Dialect.

Features

Phonology

Vowels

→ The vowels /e/ and /ɛ/ are often conflated as [ɛ], 셍섕 (선生, teacher), [seŋ.ɕɛŋ] → [sɛŋ.ɕɛŋ] → [səŋ.ɕəŋ]
→ The vowels /ɯ/ and /ʌ/ are often conflated either as [ɯ] or as [ɤ] in casual speech, 서비수 (service), [sʌ.bi.sɯ] → [sɯ.bi.hɯ~sɤ.bi.hɤ]
→ Vowels in closed syllables tend to become reduced:
⮡ /ä/ shifts to [ɐ], ex: 황 (灣, bay), [xwäŋ] → [(v)wɐŋ]
⮡ /e̞/ and /ɛ/ shift to [ə], ex: 챔템 (dragonfly) [t͡ɕʰɛ̈m.tʰe̞m] → [t͡ɕəm.təm]
⮡ /ʌ/ shifts to [ɤ], ex: 성 (山, mountan), [sʌŋ] → [sɤŋ]
⮡ /i/ shifts to [ɪ], ex: 팅시 (天使, flower), [tiŋ.ɕi] → [tɪŋ.ɕi]
⮡ /o̞/ shifts to [ʊ], ex: 톨붓 (tollbooth), [tʰo̞ɭ.bɯ̞ᵝs] → [tʊl.bɯ̽h]
⮡ /ɯ/ shifts to [ɯ̽], ex: 마퉁 (馬桶, toilet), [mä.tʰɯ̞ᵝŋ] → [mä.tɯ̽ŋ]
→ The vowel 의, which is /ɯj/ in Standard Mikyoan, is [oi̯] in open syllables and [ɯ̽:] in closed syllables, ex: 희 (海, sea) [xɯj] → [hoi̯], and 흭쿨 (to scream) [xɯjk̚.kʰɯl] → [hɯ̽:k̚.k͈ɯ̽l]

Consonants

→ /x/ is simplified to [h], ex: 항쉐 (犯罪, crime), [xäŋ.ɕu̯e̞] → [hɐŋ.ze]
→ Coda /s/ is often merged with [h] or deleted, ex: 밧 (bus), [bäs] → [bɐ(h)]
→ Intervocalic /s/ is also often merged with [h], however it is somewhat stigmatized due to its association with working class speakers of Gullu Dialect, ex: 게술 (消술, to erase), [ke̞sɯɭ] → [kehɯ̽l]
⮡ This also commonly results in /ɕ/ being realized as [ç] intervocalically, ex: 체이슈 (最終, last), [t͡ɕe̞i̯ɕjɯ] → [t͡ɕei̯çjɯ]
→ For many speakers, particularly those in primarily Lyko Mikyoan areas, voiced plosives often shift to fricatives or approximates intervocalically
⮡ /d/ shifts to [ð], [ð̞], or (most commonly) elision, ex: 마데이 (until), [mäde̞i̯] → [mä{ð~ð̞}e̞i̯~mäei̯] ([mäei̯] can also be pronounced as [mäje] or as [mäj])
⮡ /b/ shifts to [β] or [β̞], ex: 바바 (父父, father), [bä{β~β̞}ä]
⮡ /g/ shifts to [ɣ] or [ɣ̞], ex: 가기 (歌기, singing), [gä{ɣ~ɣ̞}i]
→ /ɾ/ is commonly realized as [ɹ], especially intervocallically or in more international areas due to American influence, ex: 로쿠가수 (六月, June) [ɾo̞kʰɯ̞ᵝgäsʰɯ̞ᵝ] → [ɹo.kɯ.gä.sɯ], [ɹo.kɯ.{ɣ~ɣ̞}ä.sɯ]
→ /xw/ is shifted to to [v(w)], ex: 황 (灣, bay), [xwäŋ] → [v(w)ɐŋ]
→ /t͡s/ is merged with [s], ex: 씨김 (資金, fund) [t͡sʰi.gim] → [si.gɪm], [si.{ɣ~ɣ̞}ɪm]
→ /sw/ is shifted to [z] (or [s], in some working class idiolects), ex: 항쉐 (犯罪), [xäŋ.ɕu̯e̞] → [hɐŋ.ze̞]
→ /ç/ is simplified to [h], ex: 히 (日, flower), [çi] → [hi]
→ Other realizations of /w/ (commonly realized as /u̯/) is typically lost in clusters in lower registers of speech
⮡ /gw/ is simplified as [g], ex: 광 (館, room), [gwaŋ] → [gɐŋ]
⮡ /kw/ is simplified as [k], ex: 퀟딤 (缺點, weakness) [kwe̞t̚.dim] → [kət̚.dɪm]
⮡ /bw/ is simplified as [b], ex: 봐이화 (廢話, babble, nonsense) [bwai.xwa] → [bai.v(w)a]
⮡ /pw/ is simplified as [p], ex: 정퐑 (我퐑, we), [d͡ʑʌŋ.pwaɭk̚] → [d͡ʑɤŋ.pɐlk̚]
⮡ /dw/ is simplified as [d], ex: 히뒈 (酷뒈, cruel), [çi.dwe] → [hi.de], [hi.ðe~hi.ð̞e~hi.e]
⮡ /tw/ is simplified as [t], ex: 튕빙얄루 (轉變遣루, to change), [twiŋ.biŋ.jal.lɯ] → [tɪŋ.bɪŋ.jɐl.lɯ], [tɪŋ.{β~β̞}ɪŋ.jɐl.lɯ]
⮡ /t͡ɕw/ is simplified as [t͡ɕ], ex: 췯섕징먱셔 (出生證明書, birth certificate), [t͡ɕwit̚.ɕjɛŋ.d͡ʑiŋ.mjɛŋ.ɕjʌ] → [t͡ɕɪt̚.ɕjəŋ.d͡ʑɪŋ.mjəŋ.ɕjʌ]
⮡ /t͡sw/ is simplified as [s], ex: 후가쒜 (復活祭, Easter), [ɸɯ.ga.t͡swe] → [ɸɯ.{ɣ~ɣ̞}a.se]
⮡ /d͡ʑw/ is simplified as [d͡ʑ], ex: 쥥 (圓, money), [d͡ʑwiŋ] → [d͡ʑɪŋ]
⮡ /lw~ɾw/ is simplified as [ɹ], ex: 롸피시 (螺絲批, screwdriver), [lwa.pi.ɕi~ɾwa.pi.ɕi] → [ɹa.pi.ɕi]
⮡ /mw/ is simplified as [m], ex: 엉뭬 (我뭬, we), [ʌŋ.mwe] → [ɵŋ.me]
⮡ /nw/ is simplified as [n], ex: 뉘탑 (cockroach, chiefly used in Gullu), [nwi.tap̚] → [ni.tɐp̚]
⮡ /ŋw/ is simplified as [ŋ], ex. 꽈이궉 (外國, foreign country), [ŋwai̯.gwo̞k̚] → [ŋai̯.gʊk̚], [ŋai̯.{ɣ~ɣ̞}ʊk̚]

Stress and Intonation

Stress and Intonation in Gullu City Dialect are extremely different from that of most other dialects, which tend to stress no syllables or simply the first syllable of a word, which contributes to the dialect’s perceived distinct sound.

Stress in Gullu City Dialect is placed on the second to last syllable of a word, as opposed to the first syllable in Standard Mikyoan. Stress in Gullu City Dialect is typically realized through pitch accent, and the stressed syllable receives the high pitch. Single syllable words have no stressed syllables. In questions, however, stress is placed on the last syllable of the inflected verb and so the high pitch is placed on the syllable as well.



Examples: - 銀行메이行융要 - nginghaeng-mei ikuyung-il - “you need to go to the bank” [ˈŋɪ́ŋ(h)əŋ mei̯ ikɯˈjɯ̽́ŋɪl] - H-L-L L L-L-H-L - 銀行메이行융要얘? - nginghaeng-mei ikuyung-ilyae? - “do you need to go to the bank?” [ˈŋɪ́ŋ(h)əŋ mei̯ ikɯjɯ̽ŋɪlˈjɛ̈́] - H-L-L L L-L-L-H - 食버양 - tabeoyang - “you are eating” [taˈbʌ́jɐŋ] - L-H-L - 食버양야? - tabeoyangya? - “are you eating?” [tabʌjɐŋˈjá] - L-L-L-H


Some words, particularly loanwords or words which undergo ‘h/ㅎ’ or ‘d/ㄷ’ dropping, will have irregular stress patterns.

Examples: - 앙볭타숑 - angbyengtashyong - “setting, ambiance”, from Spanish ambientación [ɐŋbjəŋtaˈɕjʊ́ŋ] - L-L-L-H - 마할 - mahal - “My Love, My Dear”, from Tagalog mahal [ˈmáhɐl] → [ˈmɐ́l] - H-L → H - 갤러리 - gaelleori - “art gallery, exposition, display”, from English gallery [ˈgə́llʌɹi] - H-L-L - 阿呆/아호 - aho - “silly, stupid, moron”, from Kansai Japanese ahō [aˈhó̞] - L-H - 막도 - makdo - “McDonalds”, from English McDonalds [mɐk̚ˈdó̞] - L-H - 抱歉 - baochyang - “sorry!, appologies!”, from Mandarin bàoqiàn [bao̞̯t͡ɕjɐŋ] - L-L - 本真 - buongjing - “truly, really”, calque of Kansai Japanese honma (chiefly Western Mikyoan) [b(w)ʊŋd͡ʑɪ́ŋ] - L-H - 마데이 - madei - “until”, Native Mikyoan word [ˈmáde̞i̯] → [ˈmá{ð~ð̞}e̞i̯~ˈmáé̞í̯] ([ˈmáé̞í̯] can also be pronounced as [ˈmájé̞] or as [ˈmáj]) - HL → HL~H~HH~H


Grammar

Interrogative Endings

Questions in Gullu City Dialect are distinguished on whether the question is polar or not, a feature which dates back to Medieval Mikyoan but has since been lost in Standard Mikyoan

At the end of an interrogative statement, the speaker will either use ~얘, ~야, or ~여 to distinguish that the question is polar. ~얘 is used in a verb containing ㅔ/ㅐ/ㅣvowels in the stem, ~야 is used in a verb containing ㅏ in the stem, and ~여 is used in a verb containing ㅓ/ㅗ/ㅜ vowels in the stem. ~얘메일루, ~야메일루 and ~여메일루 can be used to ask a question politely.

At the end of an interrogative statement, the speaker can also use ~내, ~나, or ~너 to distinguish that the question is not polar. ~내 is used in a verb containing ㅔ/ㅐ/ㅣvowels in the stem, ~나 is used in a verb containing ㅏ in the stem, and ~너 is used in a verb containing ㅓ/ㅗ/ㅜ vowels in the stem. ~내메일루, ~나메일루, and ~너메일루 can be used to ask a question politely.

Examples: - 銀行메이行융要얘? - nginghaeng-mei ikuyung-ilyae? - “do you need to go to the bank?” [ˈŋɪ́ŋ(h)əŋ mei̯ ikɯjɯ̽ŋɪlˈjɛ̈́] - 誰화銀行메이行융要내? - dallei-hua nginghaeng-mei ikuyung-ilyae? - “who needs to go to the bank?” [ˈdɐ́llei̯ v(w)a ˈŋɪ́ŋ(h)əŋ mei̯ ikɯjɯ̽ŋɪlˈnɛ̈́] - 學生가行양야? - hokshing-ga iku-yangya? - "are they (the student) going?" [ˈhʊ́k̚ɕɪŋ ŋa ikɯjɐŋˈjá] - 學生가何處메이行양나? - hokshing-ga doku-mei ikuyang'na? - "where are they (the student) going?" [ˈhʊ́k̚ɕɪŋ ŋa ˈtó̞kɯ mei̯ ikɯjɐŋˈná] - 食베버시싸야? - tabeoshitsaya? - "did you eat?" [tabʌɕisaˈjá] - 何훠食버시싸나? - nin-huo tabeoshitsaya? - "what did you eat?" [nɪn v(w)o tabʌɕisaˈná] - 막도品가齎헐령여? - makdopum-ga putakhangheollyeongyeo? - "are you bringing McDonalds?" [mɐk̚ˈdópɯm ga putɐk̚hɐŋ(h)ɤlljɤŋˈjʌ́] - 막도品가何故齎헐령여? - makdopum-ga nindei putakhangheollyeongyeo? - "why are you bringing McDonald's?" [mɐk̚ˈdópɯm ga ˈnɪ́ndei̯ putɐk̚hɐŋ(h)ɤlljɤŋˈjʌ́] - 服훠買取야? - fuk'ku-huo gaimaya - "do you want to buy clothes?" [ˈhɯ̽́k̚kɯ v(w)o gai̯maˈjá] - 동누服훠買取나? - fuk'ku-huo gaimaya - "which clothes do you want to buy?" [ˈdʊ́ŋŋɯ ˈhɯ̽́k̚kɯ v(w)o gai̯maˈná]


Negation

Gullu City Dialect is also known to have a remnant of Vowel Harmony in its negation, which has been lost in Standard Mikyoan, however, it is somewhat formal. Conjugation of Negative Verbs is done 3 ways, depending on if the vowel of the verb stem is a front, back, or central vowel. ~케이 following ㅔ/ㅐ/ㅣ stems (ex: 小 suel → 小케이 suekei) ~카이 following ㅏ stems (ex: 遣루 yallu → 遣카이 yakai) ~코이 following ㅓ/ㅗ/ㅜ stems (ex: 病물 yamul → 病무코이 yamukoi)

The particle 나양 nayang is more commonly used colloquially to negate a verb, and is used before the verb it negates. 나양 nayang does not harmonize with vowels.

Examples: "They are not a senator" - 參議院子요코이 - tsamyehuangchya yokoi [sɐmjeˈv(w)ɐ́ŋt͡ɕja ˈjókoi̯] - 나양參議院子요 - nayang tsamyehuanghcya yo [ˈnájɐŋ sɐmjeˈv(w)ɐ́ŋt͡ɕja jo] "I don't need an umbrella" - 私화雨傘훠要케이 - huateoshi-hua hyosang-huo ilkei [v(w)aˈtʌ́ɕi v(w)a ˈçjósɐŋ v(w)o ˈɪ́lkei̯] - 私화雨傘훠나양要 - huateoshi-hua hyosang-huo nayang il [v(w)aˈtʌ́ɕi v(w)a ˈçjósɐŋ v(w)o ˈnájɐŋ ɪl] "(He's) not ugly" - 無綺麗케이 - mugireikei [mɯgiˈɹéí̯kei̯] - 나양無綺麗 - nayang mugirei [ˈnájɐŋ mɯˈgíɹei̯]


The use of 나양 nayang as a negation particle dates back to World War II and is characteristic of the Gullu City Dialect. 나양 nayang itself is a shortening of 나양얄루 (慎遣루) nayangyallu, which means 'to abstain from'. The Hangji '慎' for '나양' is seldom used today. The particle 나양 nayang is sometimes used in parts of Gohama and Taketomei.

Among speakers who live in areas which are predominantly Lyko-Mikyoan, and among speakers who are recent immigrants from Lyko-America, the word 노 no (from Spanish no) is used in place of 나양 nayang.

Examples: "They are not a senator" - 參議院子요코이 - tsamyehuangchya yokoi [sɐmjeˈv(w)ɐ́ŋt͡ɕja ˈjókoi̯] - 나양參議院子요 - nayang tsamyehuanghcya yo [ˈnájɐŋ sɐmjeˈv(w)ɐ́ŋt͡ɕja jo] - 노參議院子요 - nayang tsamyehuanghcya yo [no sɐmjeˈv(w)ɐ́ŋt͡ɕja jo] "I don't need an umbrella" - 私화雨傘훠要케이 - huateoshi-hua hyosang-huo ilkei [v(w)aˈtʌ́ɕi v(w)a ˈçjósɐŋ v(w)o ˈɪ́lkei̯] - 私화雨傘훠나양要 - huateoshi-hua hyosang-huo nayang il [v(w)aˈtʌ́ɕi v(w)a ˈçjósɐŋ v(w)o ˈnájɐŋ ɪl] - 私화雨傘훠노要 - huateoshi-hua hyosang-huo nayang il [v(w)aˈtʌ́ɕi v(w)a ˈçjósɐŋ v(w)o no ɪl] "(He's) not ugly" - 無綺麗케이 - mugireikei [mɯgiˈɹéí̯kei̯] - 나양無綺麗 - nayang mugirei [ˈnájɐŋ mɯˈgíɹei̯] - 노無綺麗 - no mugirei [no mɯ{ɣ~ɣ̞}iˈɹéí̯]


Imperative

Similar to other Central Mikyoan Dialects, the imperative is seldom used in Gullu Dialect. More common is that a request or suggestion takes the form of a passive verb in the future tense, in order to convey a less direct meaning.

Examples: "Wash the dishes" - 皿훠洗우레 - salla-huo aollaure [ˈsɐ́lla v(w)o ɐʊlláɯ̯́ɹe] - 皿훠洗울릐成얼가나? - salla-huo aollaulu'i naleolgana? (literally "will the dishes be washed by you?") [ˈsɐ́lla v(w)o ɐʊllɐ́ɯ̽́lloi̯ nɐllɤllgaˈná] "Try this coffee" - 珈琲훠飲무見 - keopi huo nommu meilere [ˈkʌ́pi v(w)o ˈnʊ́mmɯ ˈméí̯leɹe] - 珈琲훠飲무見릐成얼가나?- keopi huo nommu meillu'i naleolgana? (literally "will this coffee be attempted to be drank by you?") [ˈkʌ́pi v(w)o ˈnʊ́mmɯ ˈméí̯lloi̯ nɐlɤlgaˈná] "Look over there!" - 가場메이見레! - gajong-mei meilere! [ˈgád͡ʑʊŋ mei̯ mei̯léɹe] - 가場메이見릐成얼가나?- gajong-mei meillu'i naleolgana? (literally "will that location be looked at by you?") [ˈgád͡ʑʊŋ mei̯ méí̯lloi̯ nɐlɤlgaˈná]


This form tends to be less productive in more casual speech, where the regular imperative form is more often used in place of the passive voice in commands and suggestions, however, in more formal interactions it is still common. This form is not specific to Gullu City Dialect, as it is also commonplace in all Central Mikyoan Dialects (those of Gullu, Taketomei, Gohama, and Allagusugu), but it is most commonly associated with the Gullu City Dialect due to its usage in Mikyoan television and comics.

Copula

델루 deullu (conjugated as '데' de, '다' da, or '디' di), used in Standard Mikyoan, is not commonly used in Gullu City Dialect. Instead, the verb '욜' yol (conjugated as '요' yo) is far more common, which is likely descended from Medieval Mikyoan '요뢸' (立뢸) yorör */ʝoɾør/ meaning 'to stand' (立쑬 tatsul in Modern Mikyoan). This form is occasionally used in Allagusugu as well, however, it is far less common among younger speakers and by L2 speakers in Allagusugu.


Vocabulary

Spanish Loanwords

Due to a long history of immigration from Lyko-America and the Philippines, many Spanish loanwords have made their way into the Gullu City Dialect. Many of these words are shared with Mikyoan Spanish. Some loanwords undergo shifts in meaning, however, most retain their original meaning:

Examples: - 앙볭타숑 - angbyengtashyong - “setting, ambiance”, from Spanish ambientación [ɐŋbjəŋtaˈɕjʊ́ŋ] - 아오리타 - aorita - "in just a moment", from Mexican Spanish ahorita, meaning 'right now' [aoˈɹíta] - 엑니코 - egniko - "ethnic" (increasingly considered derogatory), from Spanish étnico [eŋˈŋíko] - 아네니코 - aneniko - "tranquil state", "chill", from Mikyoan Spanish anenico(a), itself a loanword from Kampanamgapay ʻan neng, meaning 'zen' or 'tranquil' [aneˈníko] - 메렝아 - merenga - "milkshake", from Venezuelan Spanish merengada [meˈɹə́ŋa] - 푸타 - puta - "slut", "whore", from Spanish puta [ˈpɯ́ta] - 구링고 - guringo - "foreigner" (particularly Americans, Canadians, and Brits), from Spanish gringo [gɯˈɹɪ́ŋŋo] - 마노후온 - manofon - "handphone", "cellular phone", from Mikyoan Spanish manofon, itself a calque of Mikyoan 핸두폰, haendupon, being a loanword from Southeast Asian English handphone [maˈnóɸon] - 체베레 - chebere - "cool", "fine", from Spanish chévere [ˈt͡ɕébeɹe] - 후라네라 - furanera - "T-shirt", from Venezuelan Spanish franera [ɸɯˈɹáneɹa] - 돈치 - donchi - "comrade", from Mikyoan Spanish donchi, itself from Mikyoan 同志 dungji [ˈdʊ́nt͡ɕi] - 호다 - hoda - "joke", from Venezuelan Spanish joda [ˈhó(ð~ð̞)a] - 모혼 - mohon - "bullshit", "lie", from Venezuelan Spanish mojón [moˈhʊ́n] - 키삿 - kisas - "perhaps", "maybe", from Spanish quizás (often used with the word 안샬라 anshalla, loaned from Arabic) [kiˈsɐ́h] - 푸론토 - puronto - "soon", "in just a moment", from Spanish pronto [ˈpɯ́ɹʊnto] - 라테오 - rateo - "thief", from Colombian Spanish rateo [ɹaˈté(j)o] - 투라가도(遣루) turagado(yallu) - "to have a crush on someone", from Colombian Spanish tragado (literally meaning 'to be swallowed') [tɯɹaˈ{ɣ~ɣ̞}á(ð~ð̞)o], [tɯɹaˈ{ɣ~ɣ̞}áó̯] - 팔디토 paldito - "someone with dark skin", from Spanish pardito (diminutive form of pardo, meaning 'brown') [pɐlˈdíto]


Japanese Vocabulary

A number of Japanese loanwords have entered Gullu City Dialect throughout Mikyoan history, especially during the Japanese Occupation between 1879-1945. A number of Japanese loanwords have also entered in the past several decades, due to Japanese influence on pop culture in Gullu and Mikyo as a whole.

Examples: - 抹茶, 마차 macha - "matcha", from Japanese 抹茶, まっちゃ, matcha ⮡ 뫋차 (抹茶) muatcha in Standard Mikyoan - 御飯, 고한 gohan - "cooked rice" or "meal" (usually from a restaurant), from Japanese 御飯, ごはん, gohan ⮡ 이피 (飯) ipi in Standard Mikyoan - 帽子 보시 huoshi - "hat", from Japanese 帽子, ぼうし, bōshi ⮡ 모씨 (帽子) motsi in Standard Mikyoan - 야규 (野球) yagyu - "baseball" or "softball", from Japanese 野球, やきゅう, yakyū ⮡ 베이수발 beisubal in Standard Mikyoan - 고횅 (教員) gohuaeng - "teacher", from Japanese 教員, きょういん, kyōin ⮡ 싱섕 (先生) shingshaeng in Standard Mikyoan



Social Perception

The use of Gullu City Dialect was historically stigmatized due to its association with Gullu City gang culture (in particular the various gangs which emerged after the Yakuza's Mikyoan Branch, the Yaguja, was dissolved), the working class (especially working-class immigrants), Japanese Imperialism (due to heavy Japanese influence in vocabulary), and gambling and prostitution (due to Gullu's many motels, casinos, and brothels, particularly during the Yobosu Era and World War II). During the 1980s and 1990s, however, the stigma around the Gullu City Dialect began to reverse, and it suddenly became more common with younger people, especially young people who lived in other counties, as a way to sound 'cool' and 'hard', due to the exact reasons it was stigmatized in the first place. The 1980s and 1990s, in general, saw an increase in interest in gang culture among Mikyoan youth, which included the increase in usage of the Gullu City Dialect.

Today, Gullu City Dialect is still used by many gangs and is often used in dramas and television set in the Yobosu Era to suggest a character is a member in a gang or participates in other forms of organized crime. The usage of Gullu City Dialect is increasingly common in Mikyoan television, due to its increasing association with being 'cool' and 'modern' in Mikyo. Most younger Mikyoans know some of the dialect, even if they live in other counties, due to repeated exposure in media. By outside speakers, it is commonly used comedically or provocatively online, similar to AAVE in English settings online.

Among older Mikyoans, especially those who grew up during the Yobosu Era, the prevailing view of Gullu City Dialect is not particularly positive. Most older Mikyoans view the dialect as sounding vulgar, uneducated, and provocative due to its historic associations which continue to live on in older generations. Even within Gullu, older residents tend to be less positive to the Gullu City Dialect, instead preferring to speak in a more neutral Gullu Dialect, which tends to be more conservative. The more neutral Gullu Dialect is used mainly by older speakers, however, and it is declining in use, with the Gullu City Dialect being used instead, due to the eroding social stigma around it.


Immigrant Varieties

Gullu's population is comprised of various different ethnic groups, and many are made up primarily of immigrants. Gullu City and County is 48.5% foreign born and over half of all births in the county are to one or more parents who were not born in Mikyo. Because of this, Gullu City Dialect has been influenced by many different immigrant communities and many groups often speak very different versions of the dialect based on their native language. The largest immigrant communities in Gullu are those of Lyko Mikyoans (especially Cubans, Venezuelans, and Dominicans), Pacific Islander Mikyoans (especially Penghu, Fiji, and Palau), Subsaharan African Mikyoans (especially Kenyans and Nigerians), and Middle Eastern and North African Mikyoans (especially Emirati, Iranian, and Kurdish.)

Carribean Influenced Gullu City Dialect

Carribean Influenced Gullu City Dialect is increasingly common in Gullu, as around 7% of the county's population is comprised of immigrants from the Carribean. The most common groups are Venezuelans and Cubans, however some Dominicans and Puerto Ricans live in Gullu as well. The features most characteristic of Carribean Influenced Gullu City Dialect are the shift of ㄳ, ks (ex. 엓폳 ekspot, export) and ㄱㅅ, ks (ex. 악센토 aksento, accento) to ㅅㅅ, ss (엓폳 ekspot [ˈésspʊt̚], 악센토 aksento [ɐsˈsə́nto]), deletion of final <ㄷ> /d/ (ex. 초콜렏 chokollet [t͡ɕoˈkʊ́l:e]), as well as the assimilation of coda <ㄹ> /l/ into the following consonant in clusters (ex. 톨붓 tolbus [tʊb:ɯ̽h]).

Some other features which can be found in Carribean Influenced Gullu City Dialect are the shift of final <ㄹ> /l/ to [j] (ex. 燃얄 /mojal/ [ˈmójɐj] 'to burn'), which for some speakers is also expanded to final <ㄴ> /n/, which shifts to [ɲ] (ex. 하몬 /hamon/ [haˈmʊ́ɲ] 'ham'), as well as the retraction of <ㄹ> /ɹ/ to [ʀ] for some speakers, particularly those who are recent immigrants from the Dominican Republic (ex. 아메리카 /ameɹika/ [ameˈʀíka] 'America'). Speakers of Carribean Influenced Gullu City Dialect also tend to shift alveolar sounds to their dental equivalents (t d s z t͡s → t̪ d̪ s̪ z̪ t̪͡s̪).

Some speakers of Carribean Influenced Gullu City Dialect will use the word 데 'de' (from Spanish de) for expressing possession, as opposed to the Standard Mikyoan particle ~반 'ban' (ex. 方데犬요 mei de ingnu yo, 'it is her dog') as well as using 콘 'kon' (from Spanish con) for expressing the meaning of an instrumental, as opposed to the Standard Mikyoan particle ~루 (ex. 나이후콘切루양 naifu kon gilluyang, 'she is cutting with a knife')

Pacific Islander Gullu City Dialect

Pacific Islander Gullu City Dialect, which has been used in Gullu for decades, experienced a significant increase in usage the 1990s and the early 2000s. Pacific Islander Gullu City Dialect tends to incorporate various phonological elements of Austronesian languages (mainly Palauan, Penghu, and Fijian) into the Gullu City Dialect, however, the grammar tends to be unaffected for the most part, aside from some major changes.

Some phonological features of Pacific Islander Gullu City Dialect are shifting the regular voiced consonants to prenasalized voiced consonants (b d g → ᵐb ⁿd ⁿɡ) or to voiced fricatives (b d g → β~v ð~z ɣ), the collapse of the Mikyoan 7 vowel system into a 5 or 6 vowel system (a e ɛ i ɯ o ʌ → a e i u o (ə)), and (somewhat less common) the simplification of /ɕ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ç/ into [sij tij dij hij] (ex. 魔女 mashu /maɕɯ/ [masiju] witch, 茶 cha /t͡ɕa/ [tija] tea, 酬 jyu /d͡ʑɯ/ [diju] reward, 雨傘 hyosang /çosaŋ/ [hijosaŋ]).

Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 08-Aug-20 18:12 | Δt: 148.1841ms