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Vandalon Gender
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Gender and gender agreement of Vandalon nouns, pronouns, adjectives and participles.
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 16 Oct 2020, 21:36. Editing of this article is shared with Germanic Conlangers.

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Of three Germanic noun genders,  Vandalon has kept two - masculine and feminine - plus a few nouns that retained the neuter, and, most notably, a neuter indicative pronoun used for substantivation. Gender is marked on
  • a number of nouns allowing both masculine a feminine forms;
  • most pronouns;
  • articles;
  • adjectives, ordinals and participles.


Noun gender
Feminine and Masculine
Most nouns lack any grammatical of phonetic gender markings. Their gender is inferred from the words that agree with it, foremost the articles:

une/de quene - a/the woman (F);
un/du guir - a/the man (M);
un/et cint - a/the son (M) (exception!)

The words humans or animals with distinguishable biological sex almost always have corresponding gender:

de cue / du huix - the cow (F) / ox (M);
de chate / du chat the she-/he-cat;
une cogniteure / un cogniteur a female/male scientist.

The latter two examples show, that a feminine form for certain words may be formed by adding -e to the stem. In addition, words ending with -ade, -age, -arde, -cru, -çu, -esse,-ette, -itée are always feminine, most words for utensils ending with -eu are masculine (reminiscent of instrumental suffix *-ilo).

Neuter
The following  Vandalon words have retained Germanic neuter
cint - son (originally "child" in general);
œuce - horse;
écaf - sheep (collective);
fie - cattle;
fîque - fish (collective);
herte - heart;
blaud - blood;
hus - house (figurative "temple");
fœud - field;
écuif - ship;
biere - beer;
vant - water.
Neuter nouns follow the masculine agreement paradigm with the only difference that, in the singular direct case, they take et instead of du as definite article.

Adjectives
Regular adjectives
Adjectives agree with noun with both gender and number. For most adjectives, the singular feminine form is derived from the masculine by either:
  • adding -e to the stem not ending on -e and -u;
  • replacing final -e with -ée: rouge -> rougée.

Analogously, for plural forms
  • The plural suffix -es preceded by a consonant is replaced with -ées.


SingularPlural
Masculinegron
timme
gris
grones
timmes
grises
Femininegrone
timmée
grise
gronées
timmées
grisées
Englishgreen
dark
grey


Adjectives ending with Vu
Some adjectives ending with -Vu in masculine form (i.e. those that ended with -Vl in  Unknown [VVTLQ]) follow special pattern. In their feminine form the final -u in the root is replaced by -lle, some vowels may change within the root as well:

In plural, the cluster -ux is replaced with -lles

SingularPlural
Masculinelieu
geau
adeu
lieux
geaux
adeux
Femininelille
gelle
adelle
lilles
gelles
adelles
Englishsmall
yellow
noble


Those that didn't have final -Vl are affected by this rule only graphically due to overgrammatization:

SingularPlural
Masculinebleu
arou
bleux
aroux
Feminineblue
arue
blues
arues
Englishblue
quick


Participles
Both present and past participle follow the rules for general adjectives.
SingularPlural
Masculinegardant
ruché
felu
écri
gardantes
ruchés
felus
écris
Femininegardante
ruchée
felue
écrie
gardantées
ruchées
felues
écries
Englishguarding
moved
hidden
written

Present participle always agrees with the subject. The agreement of the past participle depends on the auxiliary verb agreement: if the verb used to form Perfect is bere, it agrees in gender and number with the subject; if the auxiliary is avoir> - then with the object if there is one, otherwise with the subject.

Je suis ruche.
I be.1S.PRES moved.SG.M;
I (male) moved.

J'ai mes lèvres ruchées.
I have.1S.PRES my.PL lip.PL moved.PL.F;
I have moved my lips .

Pronouns
Personal
Of personal pronouns, only third person singular ce "she" and il"he" distinguish phonetically and graphically by gender. The gender of other pronouns may however be inferred from adjectives and/or participles that agree with them.

Tu suis jeun/jeune
You.SG be.2S.PRES young.M.SG/F.SG
You (familiar) are young.

Y biez vieuxes/vieuxées
You.PL be.2P.PRES old.M.P/old.F.P
You (plural of reverend) are old.

C'avont ons jalés/jalées.
They have.PL us greeted.M.PL/F.PL
They (of unspecified gender) have greeted (males/females) us.

The same holds for relative pronouns jean (SG.M), jeane (SG.F), et (N), jeans (PL).

Possessive
Possessive pronouns agree in gender with possessees. Gender marking are only distinguishable for possessees in singular and third person plural.

Ma/ta/sa/ontre/œur/sa mère.
My/your(SG)/his-her/our/your(P)/their mother.

Mon/ton/son/ontre/œur/son fère.
My/your(SG)/his-her/our/your(P)/their father.

Mes/tes/ses/ontres/œurs/ses eutre.
My/your(SG)/his-her/our/your(P)/their parents.

For more information, see Possession in Vandalon.

Neuter pronoun et
The pronoun et is directly derived from the Germanic neuter demonstrative pronoun *khi-. It is used for instantiation. e.g.
et rouge - "that what is red", et je mois - "that's what I like", as well as in place of the few neuter nouns. Just like with neuter nouns, the agreement on adjectives, participles and possessive pronouns follows the paradigm of the masculine.

POI: Et Œuce Vilusier - The Trojan Horse
Obviously the Vandalonian gender has been gradually eroding, becoming almost non-existent by XIV century except for the words that have sacramental context. With appearance of the first Vandalonian grammar in 1492 this set of words became cemented. Precisely because of its religious context, the neuter article has gained a kind of reverence quality. There have been attempts in the Early Modern Epoch to use article 'et' for the word anse - "god, male deity", that however didn't take hold. In the later times, there occured vernacular replacement of masculine article du with et, both in reverend and derogative context; it also took popularity as errative in net slang (where, however, genders get mixed anyway). Overall, there exists a possibility for Ventalique neuter to become attached to more words via those Trojan Horse words, although hardly ever to any great extend.

PS: If You have an awkward feeling that You've been reading about something pretty similar to a natlang called "French" - well, yes, you did!
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Edit history
on 16/10/20 21:360[Deactivated User]Chnged Vandalonian to Vandalon in the title and summary
on 16/10/20 21:30+6[Deactivated User]Added punctuation, updated gerund forms to -ant- from -ent-.
on 16/10/20 21:27+15[Deactivated User]Corrected typos, updated demonstrative pronouns
on 16/10/20 21:22+237[Deactivated User]Added references to newer article, minor typos
on 17/07/20 14:39+55[Deactivated User]Added two neuter words
on 03/07/20 16:46+7[Deactivated User]Added Old Vandalonian flag
on 03/07/20 12:25+1[Deactivated User]Corrected word for fish
on 02/07/20 18:43-38[Deactivated User]Stylistic corrections
on 02/07/20 18:41+31[Deactivated User]added a neuter word
on 02/07/20 17:50+28[Deactivated User]Clarification in neuter
on 02/07/20 17:49+128[Deactivated User]added PS
on 02/07/20 17:460[Deactivated User]typo
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