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Noun cases
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Use of cases in Rireinutire
This public article was written by prettydragoon, and last updated on 7 Jan 2020, 16:07.

[comments] Menu 1. Nominative 2. Genitive 3. Accusative 4. Partitive 5. Inessive 6. Elative 7. Adessive 8. Ablative 9. Essive 10. Exessive 11. Comitative 12. Vocative
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The use of cases, with sample sentences.

[top]Nominative

The nominative case is unmarked, ie. it has a null suffix. Its glossing abbreviation is NOM, which is usually – but not always – marked in glosses of sample sentences. Nominative is the case of the subject, as well as the default case of predicative complements. As a specific case of subject, nominative is also the case of the original agent in causative constructions.

kave sirimu nomakive:
person.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
fish-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

The person ate a fish.

mano emo kuroima yakava:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
mother.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
blacksmith.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

My mother is a blacksmith.

emo huno poyaha naiñara herenariña ñovonena otitatokive:
mother.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ones.own birthdaughter-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
famous teacher-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
chemistry-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
teach-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

The mother had a famous teacher teach chemistry to her daughter.

[top]Genitive

The genitive suffix -no is used to mark possession, what has something. Also, with the adposition ñara 'with', what something or someone is with; generally, nouns with adpositions (of time, place, etc.).

yuvuno moho sañi yakava:
fruit-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
rind thick be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

The rind of the fruit is thick.

mano emo kuroima yakava:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
mother.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
blacksmith.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

My mother is a blacksmith.

mano siso hareno ñara tukiva:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
neighbour.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
mattock-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
with come-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

My neighbour came with a mattock.

ñarono puho me otihihe pesera menikiva:
meeting-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
after 1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
school-ABLAblative (case)
away from
home-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
leave-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

After the meeting, we left the school for home.

[top]Accusative

-mu
object (telic); telic patient of speech verbs; what sth is without (Xmu nopo)

kave sirimu nomakive:
person.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
fish-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

A person ate a fish.

kave huno poyaña siteyakimu motakive:
person.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ones.own birthdaughter-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
story-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
tell-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

A person told her daughter a story.

añeya hatomu nopo yokina teñekayo:
cook.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ladle-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
without what.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
make-PRSPresent tense (tense)-QInterrogative
question

What can a cook make without a ladle?

[top]Partitive

-na
partial object (atelic); what sth is made of, consists of; what sth looks like, sounds like, feels like, tastes like, smells like; what sth is more $adjective than; patient of speech verbs; negative verbs always take partitive object

kave sirina nomakive:
person.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
fish-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
eat-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

A person was eating fish.

siki time ñotona yakave:
this box.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
wood-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

This box is made of wood.

siki ñotona time yaya yakave:
this wood-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
box.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
beautiful be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

This box made of wood is beautiful.

ha maha siriteyana neukive:
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.RRational (gender/class)
sapient beings
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
fisher-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
look.like-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

She looked like a fisher to me.

yumakave tiina pamuma yakive:
human-person.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
milk-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
white-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
be-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

The Human was whiter than milk.

kave huno poyaña siteyakina motakive:
person.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ones.own birthdaughter-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
story-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
tell-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

A person was telling her daughter a story.

tepe yumatirena puukave:
few human-language-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
speak-PRSPresent tense (tense)-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

Few speak Human.

[top]Inessive

-ra
being in sth, inside sth, going to sth, into sth; in what place; specific destination

ma mivira yekiva:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
town-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

I went to the town.

ñarono puho me otihihe pesera menikiva:
meeting-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
after 1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
school-ABLAblative (case)
away from
home-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
leave-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

After the meeting, we left the school for home.

Vaino tomu mivira yakava:
vai-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
temple.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
town-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

The temple of Vai is in the town.

[top]Elative

-re
coming from (inside) sth; what sth is most $adjective of; out of a group

otepayuno puho otiya otihire pesera menikiva:
schoolday-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
after pupil.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
school-ELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
home-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
leave-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

After the schoolday, the schoolgirl left the school for home.

koñere kanami
all-ELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
old-SUPLSupralative (case)
motion over

oldest of all

ii penire huno rahuna kipotakive:
one dog-ELAElative (case)
'out of, from'
ones.own tail-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
wag-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

One of the dogs wagged her tail.

[top]Adessive

-ha
being on sth, near sth, going to sth, on top of sth, near sth; approximate destination; for (the benefit of) sb or sth, experiencer of sense verbs (seem, sound, feel, taste to sb)

poho henoha yakava:
cup.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
table-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

The cup is on the table.

ma miviha yekiva:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
town-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

I went on the town.

meeke yakava hii miviha miñuta:
pleasant be-PRSPresent tense (tense)-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense
that town-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
go-FREQFrequentative (aspect)
repeated or customary action
-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

It is pleasant to wander in the town.

emo huno poyaha naiñara herenariña ñovonena otitatokive:
mother.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ones.own birthdaughter-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
famous teacher-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
chemistry-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
teach-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

The mother had a famous teacher teach chemistry to her daughter.

ha maha siriteyana neukive:
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.RRational (gender/class)
sapient beings
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
fisher-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
look.like-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

She looked like a fisher to me.

[top]Ablative

-he
coming from atop of sth, near sth (either physically or notionally)

ha katohe susukive:
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.RRational (gender/class)
sapient beings
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
roof-ABLAblative (case)
away from
fall-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

She fell from the roof.

ñarono puho me otihihe pesera menikiva:
meeting-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
after 1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
school-ABLAblative (case)
away from
home-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
leave-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

After the meeting, we left the school for home.

[top]Essive

-pa
at/during what time; being sth, becoming sth; what sth is called; in what language

ma amipa soñakava:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
morning-ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
wake.up-PRSPresent tense (tense)-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

I wake up in the morning.

kakamu petupe añapa teñekave:
sago-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
cycad-EXESSExessive (case)
'from a state'
food-ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
make-PRSPresent tense (tense)-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

Sago is made from cycad into food.

sikina payipa imekave:
this-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
strainer-ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
name-PRSPresent tense (tense)-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

This is called a strainer.

sakimu rireinutirepa yote sunokayo:
that-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
Rireinu-language-ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
how.QInterrogative
question
say-PRSPresent tense (tense)-QInterrogative
question

How do you say that in Rireinutire?

[top]Exessive

-pe
ceasing to be sth; made into sth else

ha homepiñipe nusikive:
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.RRational (gender/class)
sapient beings
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
governor-EXESSExessive (case)
'from a state'
resign-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

She resigned as governor.

kakamu petupe añapa teñekave:
sago-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
cycad-EXESSExessive (case)
'from a state'
food-ESSEssive (case)
'as, similar'
make-PRSPresent tense (tense)-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

Sago is made from cycad into food.

[top]Comitative

-ña
(together) with sth, accompanied by sth; by using sth; through sth, by way of sth; proximate agent in causative constructions; listener (speech partner) of speech verbs

mano siso huno tivara hareña mehakiva:
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
neighbour.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ones.own garden-INEInessive (case)
'inside'
mattock-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
work-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-SENSSensory evidential (evidential)
information gained from any sense

My neighbour was working in her garden with a mattock.

he siha roñiña tukive:
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.RRational (gender/class)
sapient beings
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
here.INEInessive (case)
'inside'
train-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
come-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

They came here by train.

emo huno poyaha naiñara herenariña ñovonena otitatokive:
mother.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ones.own birthdaughter-ADEAdessive (case)
near/by
famous teacher-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
chemistry-PTVPartitive (number)
'some of' or for mass nouns
teach-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

The mother had a famous teacher teach chemistry to her daughter.

kave huno poyaña siteyakimu motakive:
person.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ones.own birthdaughter-COMComitative (case)
'together with'
story-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
tell-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-HSYHearsay evidential (evidential)
'I have heard that...'

A person told her daughter a story.

[top]Vocative

-'
In principle, words used to address somebody take vocative case. However, in recent centuries vocative has been steadily losing ground to nominative. Vocative is only used in certain fixed expressions.

Hasesama':
deity-aunt-VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'

O my Goddess!

sopu':
peace-VOCVocative (case)
'O [addressee]'

Hello! / Goodbye!
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