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Basics of the grammar and syntax of Eluunie
This public article was written by Elunia, and last updated on 18 Dec 2018, 05:41.
Eluunie is an analytic language, so its grammar is strongly connected to the syntax. In fact, there is no division of the words between the parts of speech: every word (except oblique case particle) can be noun, adjective, verb or adverb depending on its place and particles surrounding it in the sentence. So, firstly, I will show where which part of speech must be placed, and then characteristics of this part of speech defined by particles after or before the word.
Article Subject_noun AS Adjectives UN Possessor EIS Number | Article Object_noun AS adjectives UN Possessor EIS number I postposition | Adverbs | Verb_attributes Verb time (mark).
The order of adjectives and objects in a sentence is free. Verb_attributes are the same as adjectives for a noun, they are basically the parts of a complex verb.
And yes, Eluunie has special words for question and exclamation marks.
[top]Parts of speech
Nouns are mostly used with articles. The exception is when the sentence consists of only this noun.
Nouns can be singular and plural, it is shown by article behind this noun. For example: "Ë uyo" - a house, "Ëe uyo" - houses.
Nouns have 2 cases: Nominativ and Oblique. Oblique is shown by "i" particle after the whole noun phrase. For example: "Ë isaa un ä i uno" - to my friend.
[top]Noun Characterizing Parts
Other languages have adjectives, possessing particles, numeral etc. All of that is called Noun Characterizers or "As as Eyihi".
There 3 types of NCP:
- traditional adjectives - go after "as" particle;
- possessors - go after "un" particle;
- numerals and words meaning number - go after "eis" particle
Homogeneous NCPs don't need particles between them: the particle goes only before the first word. For example: "Ë uyo as ohoi öeh" - big red house.
NCPs can be nested making more complex attributes. For example: "Ë uyo as ihio as öeh" - the house made of red tree (or the red tree house). Here "tree" is an attribute for "house" and "red" is an attribute for "tree".
There not only "as" can be used in complex attributes. For example: "Ë uyo as ihio un ä as eïn eis aaes." - the house made of three sorts of my trees. (It breaks the rule where "un"-attributes must go after "as" but there 's recommendation stronger than that rule: Nested attributes better go the last.)
Degrees of comparison:
Adjectives have 3 degrees of comparison, which have two types: positive and negative.
|Simple||-||adjective itself||"Ë uyo as ooyä u es" - this house is high|
|Simple NEG||as an||negation of adjective||"Ë uyo as ooyä as an u es" - this house is not high|
|Comparative||as eis||better than||"Ë uyo as ooyä as eis ö uyo i u es" - this house is higher than that house|
|Comparative NEG||as uhö||not better than||"Ë uyo as ooyä as uhö ö uyo i u es" - this house is not higher than that house|
|Superlative||as ai||the best||"Ë uyo as ooyä as ai u es" - this house is the highest|
|Superlative NEG||as uasay||not the best||"Ë uyo as ooyä as uasay u es" - this house is not the highest|
[top]Verbs and verb attributes
Verbs have classical 3 tenses which are shown by as name "tense particle" after the verb.
To negate the verb you need to add the "an" prefix to the tense particle: an+es, an+oy, an+ah.
To make Imperative verb add "uy" particle between the verb and tense particle.
If you don't need to specify the time you can drop the tense particle. For example: "Ï esi uy" - eat.
"Ï esi uy es" will mean that you need to eat right now.
If you need to negate Imperative verb and there's no tense particle: add negation prefix to "uy". For example: "Ï esi anuy" - don't eat.
To make the verb continuous, add the verb "oyaa" after the main verb. For example: "Ä ohos eis iin esi oyaa oy." - I was eating for 1 hour.
To add perfect to the verb, use the verb "eyen" (happen/result) or "uun"(have) depending on the meaning after the main verb.
If the verb is in perfect continuous tense "oyaa" goes before "eyen"/"uun".
Formally doesn't exist. Passive voice Eluunie sounds like one (5th person) did something to the subject.
For example: "Eni ë öno i auun es" - the book is taken.
Unlike other language, articles in Eluunie are used only to determine a noun and can be a noun itself if there is no word to determine. There are no indefinite articles.
If you want to show that the object is definite, you need to used the word "önesi" (concrete) as adjective for this object.
Words that can be articles:
- Personal pronouns
- Question pronouns ("aay + pronoun")
- "Aeh" with meaning of "any" or "all"
- "Eii" with meaning of "some"
- "Anë" with meaning of "noone" (used rarely and mostly in informal speech)
Articles always precede the noun they determine.
They also have roles of articles.
|Argument||As aay||As ë||As ö|
|Location||Aay aän||Aän as ë||Aän as ö||Aän eii||Aän anas||Aän aeh|
|Time||Aay üoh||Üoh as ë||Üoh as ö||Üoh eii||Üoh anas||Üoh aeh|
|Route||Aay uno||Uno as ë||Uno as ö||Uno eii||Uno anas||Uno aeh|
|Method||Aay ey||Ey as ë||Ey as ö||Ey eii||Ey anas||Ey aeh|
|Reason||Aay ëso||Ëso as ë||Ëso as ö||Ëso eii||Ëso anas||Ëso aeh|
|Quantity||Eis aay||Eis as ë||Eis as ö||Eis eii||Eis anas||Eis aeh|