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Qgam Conjunctions
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Qgam Conjunctions
This public article was written by clawgrip, and last updated on 24 Jan 2018, 12:48.

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The following is a list of conjunctions in Qgam. These will be expanded and example sentences will be included for all of them.

twoand; moreover; furthermore
bimor
只或pabimeither … or
paĝalthough (but)
雖(但)himaĝeven though (but even so)from hiĝ "low; short" + paĝ "but"
除限dyuo khaamunless; only if; as long as
陣(時)radarwhen; whilefrom rad- temporal adverbial prefix + ar "time"
毎時ceay arwhenever; every time
以前tata, tadabefore
以後teyafter
一曾ko pkweonce; as soon asfrom ko "one" + pkuo "only" + e "after"
stiwuntil
以因te gaabecause
偌往wa diso; therefore; that's why
如效tatomif
苟效watomeven iffrom wa "so; thus" + tom "if"
那從qhwam gwosince; ever since




two "and; moreover; furthermore"

As in English, this conjunction may connect any two phrases. When connecting clauses, it is optional.

伊已泳乃於享且已跑乃於亦享

Ĝwa ey yaar ta 'm pyo two ey baaĝ ta 'm nwo pyo.
/ŋwʌ e: jæ:ɻ tʌm pjɜ twɔə e: bɑ:ŋ tʌm nwɔə pjɜ/
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
swim NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
enjoy and EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
run NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
also enjoy
"He enjoys swimming, and he enjoys running, too."



bim "or"

This conjunction implies that other, unnamed options are also possible.

我能刁研肉球球於喰或能刁鶏肉於喰

Er dzem myuo ka pwo pwo 'm klea bim dzem ki ka 'm klea.
/ɛɻ d͡zɛm mjɨə kʌ pwɔə pwɔəm kleə bim d͡zɛm ki kʌm kleə/
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
may.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
grind meat ball ball ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat or chicken meat ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat
"We may eat meatballs or chicken."



只或 pabim "either … or"

This conjunction is used to provide a full list of options.

汝將研肉球球於喰只或不將何何喰

Im šruo myuo ka pwo pwo 'm klea pabim mšruo ĝa ĝa klea.
/im ɕɻʊə mjɨə kʌ pwɔə pwɔəm kleə pʌbim mɕɻʊə ŋʌ ŋʌ kleə/
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
grind meat ball ball ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat either.or NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
what what eat
"Either you eat meatballs or you eat nothing."



paĝ "although"

This conjunction is closest in meaning to "although" but due to the head-final nature of Qgam conjunctions, it is perhaps more easily translated as "but".

那已很長遠但、地景已很麗
 
Ĝwa ey çcar dyaaĝ yom paĝ, tea gyoĝ ey çcar leam.
/ŋwʌ e: çt͡ɕəɻ djæ:ŋ jɜm pʌŋ teə gjɜŋ e: çt͡ɕəɻ leəm/
there EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
very long far but scenery EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
very beautiful
"It is very far away, but the scenery is very beautiful."



雖(但) himaĝ "even though"

This conjunction functions similar to paĝ above, but marks the clauses as showing a particularly unexpected contrast. It is closest in meaning to "even though" but due to the head-final nature of Qgam conjunctions, it is perhaps more easily translated as "but even so".

降雨了多雖但、吾了趟旅㇉享
 
La ja wea jim himaĝ, aa wea doĝ ļwo 'r pyo.
/lʌ d͡ʑə weə d͡ʑim ximʌŋ ɑ: weə dɔŋ ʎwo:ɻ pjɜ/
rainfall PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
many even.though 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
EMPEmphatic
stressed or emphasised
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
travel DEFDefinite
"the"
.ARTArticle
indicate the type of reference being made by the noun
enjoy
"Even though it rained a lot, I enjoyed the trip."

In writing, may be left out, e.g. 降雨了多雖、吾了趟旅㇉享.



除限 dyuo khaam "unless"

This marks a condition that is a requirement for the statement on the main clause. Like English "unless", it i inherently negates its clause ("unless X happens" = "if X doesn't happen") and thus is essentially a negative conditional.

汝得吾於助除限、吾不可此乃於訖完
 
Im do aa 'm pedzaa dyuo khaam, aa ma meaĝ tim ta 'm hanwea.
/im dɔ ɑ:m pɛd͡zɑ: djɨə k͡xɑ:m ɑ: mʌ meəŋ tim tʌm xʌnweə/
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
assist unless 1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
can here NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
finish
"I cannot finish this unless you help me."

伊了凶甚事於至除限、它不應那僉集
 
Ĝwa wiy khyoĝ hlo 'm dzwoĝ dyuo khaam, ĝwea mblse qhwam yisnuo.
/ŋwʌ wi: k͡xjɜŋ xlɔm d͡zwɔəŋ djɨə k͡xɑ:m ŋweə mblsɛʔ xwʌm jisnʊə/
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
terrible thing ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
happen unless 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-may.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
together-gather
"They would not gather there unless something terrible had happened."



陣(時) radar "when; while"



毎時 ceay ar "whenever; every time"



以前 tata, tada "before"



以後 tey "after"



一曾 ko pkwe "once; as soon as"

我得刁畢喰一曾伊與話

Er dea sĝklea ko pkwe ĝwa eto ra.
/ɛɻ deə sŋkleə kɔ pkwɛ ŋwʌ ɛtɔ ɻʌ/
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
finish-eat as soon as 3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
with speak
"I will speak with her as soon as we finish eating."



stiw "until"



以因 te gaa "because"



偌往 wa di "so; therefore; that's why"



如效 tatom "if"



苟效 watom "even if"



那從 qhwam gwo "since; ever since"
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