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Gutiskar Adjectives
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A short overview of adjectives in Gutiskar.
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 14 Jul 2019, 21:18.

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Menu 1. A-stem adjectives 2. I-stem adjectives 3. U-stem adjectives 4. Extended-stem adjectives 5. Labialised u-stem adjectives 6. Comparison Like verbs and nouns, adjectives in Gutiskar have also preserved many of the features present in Proto-Germanic. Adjectives are declined according to number, case, and gender, in which they match those of the noun they modify.

Adjectives belong to different declension classes but the forms are largely similar and not as distinct as in verbs and nouns. A fundamental feature inherited from Proto-Germanic is that adjectives can be inflected by two different paradigms, known as weak and strong.

The two kinds of inflection reflect a difference in meaning. Weak adjectives are considered definite, and refer to specific individuals, known people or things, or to people or things for which the adjective is a defining characteristic. They are often used with demonstrative determiners and possessive pronouns, although they can also be used alone, in which case they are similar to a definite article. Strong adjectives are used in all other cases.

Many adjectives are also comparable, meaning they have a comparative and a superlative degree. The superlative form can also be either strong or weak, The vast majority of adjectives are inflected regularly but some do not follow any regular pattern and are unpredictable.

[edit] [top]A-stem adjectives

This is the most common class of adjectives.

svartar “black”
Strong declensionWeak declension
Nom. svartarsvart*svartósvartæsvartásvartórsvartásvartásvartásvartnirsvartsvartnor
Acc. svartansvartásvartarsvartunsvartonsvartnyrsvartnyr
Gen. svartassvartrórsvartsvartissvartossvart
Dat. svartamsvartsvartærsvartinsvartynsvartmarsvartmor
Inst. svartasvartsvartirsvartésvartsvartmirsvartmyr

(*) Neuter singular form: Special attention should be paid to this form of the adjectives since it is often slightly unpredictable. It has a zero ending which sometimes results in odd consonantal clusters, which in turn are resolved in various but sometimes unpredictable ways. The most common solution is the addition of an -è- before the last consonant in the cluster, but sometimes other solutions are possible too. This applies to all adjectival classes.
  • miklarmikèl “large, big”

[edit] [top]I-stem adjectives

I-stem adjectives are fairly rare. Their declension is virtually identical to the a-stem adjectives but with the addition of a -j- in most forms. The weak declension is likewise similar to the a-stem weak declension, and additionally also identical to the u-stem weak declension.

skánir “beautiful”
Strong declensionWeak declension
Nom. skánirskánskánískánskánskánǿrskánskánskánskánnirskánskánnor
Acc. skánjanskánskánjarskánynskánǿnskánnyrskánnyr
Gen. skánisskánrórskánskánísskánǿsskán
Dat. skánjamskánskánǽrskánínskánýnskánmarskánmor
Inst. skánjaskánskánírskánskánskánmirskánmyr

[edit] [top]U-stem adjectives

U-stem adjectives are fairly rare as well. Most of the forms are similar or identical to those of either a-stem (strong) or i-stem (weak) adjectives.

kurur “heavy”
Strong declensionWeak declension
Nom. kururkurkurókurækurákurórkurkurkurkurnirkurkurnor
Acc. kurankurákurarkurynkurǿnkurnyrkurnyr
Gen. kuraskurrórkurkurískurǿskur
Dat. kuramkurkurærkurínkurýnkurmarkurmor
Inst. kurakurkurirkurkurkurmirkurmyr

[edit] [top]Extended-stem adjectives

Also known as the i-extended-stem adjectives. Adjectives of this type do not constitute its own class, and adjectives of this type can belong to any of the three stem classes. The defining characteristic of this type of adjectives is the addition of an extra -i- in both the weak and strong declensions - it is added when the suffix begins in a consonant and the stem of the adjective ends in a consonant cluster. The majority of nouns belonging to this category have stems ending in -CC where the second consonant is r, l or n.

Here is an example of an a-stem adjective of this type:
miklar “large”
Strong declensionWeak declension
Nom. miklarmikèlmiklómiklæmiklámiklórmiklámiklámiklámiklinirmiklimiklinor
Acc. miklanmiklámiklarmiklunmiklonmiklinyrmiklinyr
Gen. miklasmiklirórmiklimiklismiklosmikli
Dat. miklammiklimiklærmiklinmiklynmiklimarmiklimor
Inst. miklamiklimiklirmiklémiklmiklimirmiklimyr

Some other adjectives of this type are:
  • aglur “difficult” (u-stem)

  • arnir “serious” (i-stem)

[edit] [top]Labialised u-stem adjectives

This is a minor subtype of u-stem adjectives, comprising of adjectives that end in a labialised consonant. The weak declension is identical to the regular u-stem declension.

angur “narrow”
Strong declensionWeak declension
Nom. anguranègangwóangjæangwáangórangangangangnirangangnor
Acc. angánangwáangárangynangǿnangnyrangnyr
Gen. angásangrórangangísangǿsang
Dat. angámangangǽrangínangýnangmarangmor
Inst. angwaangangírangangangmirangmyr

Some other adjectives of this type are:

[edit] [top]Comparison

Compared to the system used in Proto-Germanic, the system of adjectival comparison in Gutiskar was levelled and simplified. The same suffixes are added to a-stem, i-stem and u-stem adjectives. The comparative degree has only one form while the superlative degree declines like an a-stem adjective, having both weak and strong declensions.

The strong superlative forms are used predicatively while the weak superlative forms are used attributively.

Here is an example of a comparative degree declension:
dægar “soft”
Nom. dægeradægeradægeridægerardægerodægerir
Acc. dægerundægerudægererdægeryr
Gen. dægeridægerirdægerna
Dat. dægerindægermar
Inst. dægeredægermir

Here is an example of a superlative degree declension:
dægar “soft”
Strong declensionWeak declension
Nom. dægistardægistdægistodægistædægistadægistordægistadægistadægistadægistnirdægistnodægistnor
Acc. dægistandægistadægistardægistundægistondægistnyrdægistnyr
Gen. dægistasdægistrordægistradægistisdægistosdægistna
Dat. dægistamdægistrudægistærdægistindægistyndægtistmardægistmor
Inst. dægistadægistrodægistirdægistedægistnedægtistmirdægistmyr

Some adjectives are irregular in the sense that they use suppletive roots to forms the comparative and superlative degrees. See also their adverbial counterparts.
Base formComparativeSuperlative
góðar “good”jys(e)ra, bat(e)ra, bæra “better”jy(si)star, batistar, bæstar “best”
ellar “bad”virsera, vírra “worse”virsistar, vírstar “worst”
miklar “large, big”mæra “larger, bigger”mæstar “largest, biggest”
lítlar “little, small”minera “littler, smaller”ministar “littlest, smallest”

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