Lesson #3 - Pronouns, Questions, & Basic Phrases
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Learn Pronouns, Important Questions and Basic Phrases
This public article was written by Zfeinst, and last updated on 10 Jun 2020, 16:07.
[comments] trsnlessonslesson 3
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Table of Contents
Pronouns and question words are an essential part of any language - you can barely get anything done without them! Therefore, this lesson will cover pronouns, question words, and basic phrases that can be constructed with them.
tareséasen has all of the same pronouns as English : Me, You, We, He, She, and They. However, tareséasen has an additional three pronouns: You in the dual form, You in the plural form, and They in the dual form. The table below displays all of these pronouns in tareséasen. The table also contains the English spelling of the words, in case you’re still not quite accustomed to the tareséasen spelling just yet.
|Pronoun||Pronoun (English Spelling)||English Definition|
|bódavú||bo’davu’||Both of You|
|yál||ya’l||All of You|
|nótró / nó||no’tro’ / no’||We|
|bódadem||bo’dadem||Both of Them|
Note that nótró can be shortened to nó. While nótró is technically the “more correct” way to say “we”, and is used on formal occasions, documents, etc., nó is more commonly used in day-to-day speech, since it’s shorter and easier to say quickly.
You may also notice that the two dual forms are just the word bóda attached to their respective related pronouns. This is because these pronouns are a compound word made of the respective pronoun and the word bóda, meaning “a pair”. Therefore bódavú and bódadem literally mean “pair-you” and “pair-them”, respectively.
If you want to get information from someone, knowing how to ask a question is key. Below are the words used to convey a question.
|Question Word||Question Word (English Spelling)||English Definition|
|ch’óch’ón||ch’o’ch’o’n||How About (negotiating)|
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowch’óch’ón is a compound word formed from the words ch’ó, which we just learned, and ch’ón, one of the forms of the word meaning “with”. Therefore, ch’óch’ón literally means “how-with”.
We’ll put those question words to use in a little while, but first, you should know some other important words and phrases.
As you may have figured out already, salwe means “Hello!” This form of greeting is used when the speaker knows who they are talking to, or want to appear friendly to a stranger.
When saying hello to someone you can’t see, someone you don’t know, or someone you might be suspicious of, you’d use the word hególe. In English this would mean either “Who goes there?”, or“Identify yourself”.
When greeting someone at a certain time of day, (think “good morning”, etc.), you would say the time of day, followed by the adjective gút.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowEx. Good Day = datey gút.
To say “how are you?”, you would ask haryadón.
To bid someone welcome, or to invite someone into your home, you’d say banvedó, a term with which you’re already familiar with.
When saying goodbye, there’s two options.
If you’re planning on seeing the person within the near future, typically anytime within the next two weeks or so, you’d say taech’aer.
If you’re not planning on seeing the person for a longer period of time (or ever again), you would say egógahan.
If you bump into someone, or want to get people to move out of your way, you would say sch’yúme. To apologize, to someone, you would say mesentó. A typical response to these phrases would be washtey, which in English would mean “okay”, or “don’t worry about it”.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowmesentó is a compound word formed from the words me (I), which we just learned, and sentó (sorrow)
Please, thank you, and you’re welcome are also important phrases to know in any language. In tareséasen., these are plez, danch’i, and yavól, respectively.
Breakdown and a note on yavól:
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowyavól is a compound word, comprised of ya (Yes), and vól(to understand). Therefore yavól literally means “yes (I) understand. Therefore, the literal implication for “you’re welcome” would be “I understand/acknowledge your gratitude”. It should also be noted that that yavól is also used as an acknowledgement that is said when someone gives you an order. This would be similar to “Yes, sir” in English.
Here is a table of all the phrases we just learned.
|Phrase||Phrase (English Spelling)||English Definition|
|ansóla gút||anso’la gu’t||Good Morning|
|datey gút||datey gu’t||Good Day|
|nax’t gút||nax’t gu’t||Good Evening/Night|
|haryadón||haryado’n||How Are You?|
|banvedó||banvedo’||Welcome / Come In|
[top]Question Phrases and Answers
When asking any question, except for “how”, you put the relevant question word at the start of the sentence, followed by the interrogative form of the verb “to be”, iz. At the end of the phrase, while writing, you would put question marks, ¿_?.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted ask “Where is the bathroom?”, you would say ¿vó-er iz da banó?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted to ask “Who is he?”, you would say ¿ch’ú iz im?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted to know the price of something, you might say ¿ch’antó pró dash? (Literally, “how much for that?”)
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted to ask “What’s new?”, you would say ¿ch’e iz nevó?
It’s also possible to compound these question words with iz.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowEx. ch’e iz can be compounded into ch’aez, ch’ú iz into ch’úz, ch’an iz into ch’anto, and so on.
When asking a “how” question, you are typically asking about a particular quality of something (an adjective), or the manner of something (an adverb). With these kinds of questions, the same formula as above applies, except you put the quality word in question between the question word and iz
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted to ask “How old are you?”, the correct way to ask this would be ¿ch’ó eld iz vú?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted to ask “How expensive is it?”, you would say ¿ch’ó gadólar iz es?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowTo ask how fast a horse was, you’d say ¿ch’ó rapa iz da hars?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wished to know how well someone could swim, you could ask them ¿ch’ó bene úshgó vú?
If asking a question involving pódra, or a verb, ¿pódra or the verb are placed before the pronoun, which is placed before the question word
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowTo ask someone if they would like to dance, you can say ¿pódra nó balene?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowTo find out if a group of people can sing, you’d ask ¿pódra yál ach’a?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf you wanted to ask “do you know how to swim?”, you’d say ¿sabre vú ch’o la úshgó?
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowTo ask if a man eats a lot, you’d ask ¿ch’omdane im ega?
Each question (obviously) should have an answer to it.
If it’s a yes or no kind of question, yes would be ya, and no would be ne
If not, you’d simply repeat the asked phrase, not in the interrogative form, with the answer.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf asked how old you were (and you were 25), you’d answer me ben unsinch’ yares.
▼ Click here to toggle hidden content belowIf asked how well you could dance, you’d say me balene ebene (I dance very well), or me nibalene bene (I don’t dance well).
Here is a table of kinds of questions and answers that you might hear.
|Phrase||Phrase (English Spelling)||English Definition|
|¿ch’ú iz vú?||ch’u’ iz vu’?||Who are you?|
|me ben da ch’íron vú-a.||me ben da ch’i’ron vu’-a.||I’m your teacher.|
|¿ch’e vú ch’al?||ch’e vu’ ch’al?||What’s your name?|
|me ben (name) / me ch’al ben (name)||me ben (name) / me ch’al ben (name)||My Name Is (name)|
|¿ch’ó eld iz vú?||ch’o’ eld iz vu’?||How old are you?|
|me ben (age) yares eld.||me ben (age) yares eld.||I’m (age) years old.|
|¿ch’e iz da tempó?||ch’e iz da tempo’?||What time is it?|
|es ben (Time)||es ben (time)||It is (time)|
|¿ch’antó pró dash?||ch’anto’ pro’ dash?||How much for that?|
|es ben (Price)||es ben (price)||It costs (price)|
|¿vó-er iz da banó?||vo’-er iz da bano’?||Where is the Bathroom?|
|es dan el esch’as.||es dan el esch’as.||It’s down the stairs.|
|¿ch’í iz bódavú e-rapa?||ch’i’ iz bo’davu’ e-rapa?||Why are you both so fast?|
|nó nisabre.||no’ nisabre.||We don’t know.|
|¿pódra nó bata?||po’dra no’ bata?||Can we negotiate/barter?|
|¿ch’óch’ón cre botelas pró sinch’?||ch’o’ch’o’n cre botelas pro’ sinch’?||How about three bottles for five?|
|me nidench’i só.||me nidench’i so’.||I don’t think so.|
How would you say “Hello, ¿who are you?”
'> hególe, ch’ú iz vú? ↺
salwe, ¿haryadón? means...
If you were saying goodbye to someone who you will see tomorrow, you would say...
True or False: A quality word in a question goes before iz
¿ch’antó pró da hars? means...
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