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Lesson #3 - Pronouns, Questions, & Basic Phrases
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Learn Pronouns, Important Questions and Basic Phrases
This public article was written by Zfeinst, and last updated on 10 Jun 2020, 16:07.

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11. Proverbs
Menu 1. Pronouns 2. Question Words 3. Basic Phrases 4. Question Phrases and Answers 5. Your Turn For Lesson 1, click here!
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Table of Contents



¡salwe!


¡banvedó a da V-on tacen en tareséasen!

(Welcome to the 3rd Lesson in Taresian!)


Pronouns and question words are an essential part of any language - you can barely get anything done without them! Therefore, this lesson will cover pronouns, question words, and basic phrases that can be constructed with them.

[top]Pronouns


tareséasen has all of the same pronouns as English : Me, You, We, He, She, and They. However, tareséasen has an additional three pronouns: You in the dual form, You in the plural form, and They in the dual form. The table below displays all of these pronouns in tareséasen. The table also contains the English spelling of the words, in case you’re still not quite accustomed to the tareséasen spelling just yet.

PronounPronoun (English Spelling)English Definition
me meI
vu’You
bódavú bo’davu’Both of You
yál ya’lAll of You
nótró / nó no’tro’ / no’We
im imHim
er erHer
dem demThem
bódadem bo’dademBoth of Them


Note that nótró can be shortened to . While nótró is technically the “more correct” way to say “we”, and is used on formal occasions, documents, etc., is more commonly used in day-to-day speech, since it’s shorter and easier to say quickly.

You may also notice that the two dual forms are just the word bóda attached to their respective related pronouns. This is because these pronouns are a compound word made of the respective pronoun and the word bóda, meaning “a pair”. Therefore bóda and bódadem literally mean “pair-you” and “pair-them”, respectively.

[top]Question Words


If you want to get information from someone, knowing how to ask a question is key. Below are the words used to convey a question.

Question WordQuestion Word (English Spelling)English Definition
ch’ú ch’u’Who
ch’e ch’eWhat
vó-er vo’-erWhere
ch’an ch’anWhen
ch’í ch’i’Why
ch’ó ch’o’How
ch’antó ch’anto’How Much
ch’óch’ón ch’o’ch’o’nHow About (negotiating)
pódra po’draCan/Could


ch’óch’ón Breakdown:
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[top]Basic Phrases


We’ll put those question words to use in a little while, but first, you should know some other important words and phrases.

GREETINGS:

As you may have figured out already, salwe means “Hello!” This form of greeting is used when the speaker knows who they are talking to, or want to appear friendly to a stranger.

When saying hello to someone you can’t see, someone you don’t know, or someone you might be suspicious of, you’d use the word hególe. In English this would mean either “Who goes there?”, or“Identify yourself”.

When greeting someone at a certain time of day, (think “good morning”, etc.), you would say the time of day, followed by the adjective gút.

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To say “how are you?”, you would ask haryadón.

To bid someone welcome, or to invite someone into your home, you’d say banvedó, a term with which you’re already familiar with.


GOODBYES:

When saying goodbye, there’s two options.

If you’re planning on seeing the person within the near future, typically anytime within the next two weeks or so, you’d say taech’aer.

If you’re not planning on seeing the person for a longer period of time (or ever again), you would say egógahan.


MANNERS:

If you bump into someone, or want to get people to move out of your way, you would say sch’yúme. To apologize, to someone, you would say mesentó. A typical response to these phrases would be washtey, which in English would mean “okay”, or “don’t worry about it”.

mesentó breakdown:
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Please, thank you, and you’re welcome are also important phrases to know in any language. In tareséasen., these are plez, danch’i, and yavól, respectively.

Breakdown and a note on yavól:
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Here is a table of all the phrases we just learned.

PhrasePhrase (English Spelling)English Definition
salwe salweHello! (Friendly)
hególe hego’leHello (Cautious)
ansóla gút anso’la gu’tGood Morning
datey gút datey gu’tGood Day
nax’t gút nax’t gu’tGood Evening/Night
haryadón haryado’nHow Are You?
banvedó banvedo’Welcome / Come In
taech’aer taech’aerGoodbye (temporary)
egógahan ego’gahanGoodbye (Extended/Forever)
sch’yúme sch’yu’meExcuse Me
mesentó mesento’I’m Sorry
washtey washteyOkay
plez plezPlease
danch’i danch’iThank you
yavól yavo’lYou’re Welcome


[top]Question Phrases and Answers


When asking any question, except for “how”, you put the relevant question word at the start of the sentence, followed by the interrogative form of the verb “to be”, iz. At the end of the phrase, while writing, you would put question marks, ¿_?.

Examples:
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Note
It’s also possible to compound these question words with iz.
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When asking a “how” question, you are typically asking about a particular quality of something (an adjective), or the manner of something (an adverb). With these kinds of questions, the same formula as above applies, except you put the quality word in question between the question word and iz

Examples:
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If asking a question involving pódra, or a verb, ¿pódra or the verb are placed before the pronoun, which is placed before the question word

Examples:
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Each question (obviously) should have an answer to it.

If it’s a yes or no kind of question, yes would be ya, and no would be ne

If not, you’d simply repeat the asked phrase, not in the interrogative form, with the answer.

Examples:
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Here is a table of kinds of questions and answers that you might hear.

PhrasePhrase (English Spelling)English Definition
¿ch’ú iz vú? ch’u’ iz vu’?Who are you?
me ben da ch’íron vú-a. me ben da ch’i’ron vu’-a.I’m your teacher.
¿ch’e vú ch’al? ch’e vu’ ch’al?What’s your name?
me ben (name) / me ch’al ben (name)me ben (name) / me ch’al ben (name)My Name Is (name)
¿ch’ó eld iz vú? ch’o’ eld iz vu’?How old are you?
me ben (age) yares eld. me ben (age) yares eld.I’m (age) years old.
¿ch’e iz da tempó? ch’e iz da tempo’?What time is it?
es ben (Time) es ben (time)It is (time)
¿ch’antó pró dash? ch’anto’ pro’ dash?How much for that?
es ben (Price) es ben (price)It costs (price)
¿vó-er iz da banó? vo’-er iz da bano’?Where is the Bathroom?
es dan el esch’as. es dan el esch’as.It’s down the stairs.
¿ch’í iz bódavú e-rapa? ch’i’ iz bo’davu’ e-rapa?Why are you both so fast?
nó nisabre. no’ nisabre.We don’t know.
¿pódra nó bata? po’dra no’ bata?Can we negotiate/barter?
¿ch’óch’ón cre botelas pró sinch’? ch’o’ch’o’n cre botelas pro’ sinch’?How about three bottles for five?
ya. ya.Yes.
ne. ne.No.
me nidench’i só. me nidench’i so’.I don’t think so.


[top]Your Turn


How would you say “Hello, ¿who are you?”
 

salwe, ¿haryadón? means...
 

If you were saying goodbye to someone who you will see tomorrow, you would say...
 

True or False: A quality word in a question goes before iz
 

¿ch’antó pró da hars? means...
 



If you’re ready for the next lesson, click here!

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