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Eklian sentences
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This public article was written by Elunia, and last updated on 22 Dec 2019, 07:22.

[comments] Menu 1. Basic sentences 2. Imperative sentences 3. Questions 4. Complex sentences 5. Relative clause 6. Conditional sentences
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]Basic sentences


The basic word order VSO (Verb-Subject-Object). Actually the V part is split in two: the main part at the start and the tense marker at the end of the sentence.
Ya sa Ehjia is an analytic language (despite its morphology the roles of the words are determined by surrounding adpositions.

Sentence structure:
<Main verb> <dependent verbs> <Article (often pronoun)> SA <Adjectives> SL <Quantity> NV <possessor> A <Article> <object noun> SA <Adjectives> SL <quantity> NV <possessor> I/HA <postposition> <Adverbs> <Tense marker> <Mood marker (if not declarative)>.

in this structure
  • SA /aˢ/ - adjective marker. If you have an adjective who has dependent adjectives they go after SA after it.
  • SL /ɪˢ/ - quantity marker.
  • NV /ʉ̃/ - possession marker. The possessor goes after it.
  • A /a/ - nominative or subject case.
  • I /i/ - oblique or object case.
  • Ha /aʱ/ - topic nominative case. Used when both the subject and the object are in nominative case.


[top]Imperative sentences

Imperative sentence doesn't differ much from declarative. To make imperative sentence you need to use "ju" (command) word at the end of the sentence before tense marker.
Example: Come here.
sI ji a je i no ju (se)
Si ji a je i no ju (se)
GLOSS: Go 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
DIRDirective (case)
motion arriving at, position next to
IMPImperative (mood)
command
(PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
)
If you don't care of when the command must be executed you don't use the tense marker.
NOTE: the subject can be dropped if it is second person and the number of "you" is understandable by context.
So you can shorten the sentence to sI je i no ju. Si je i no ju.

If you use exclamation in the sentence you need to use "jo" word at the end of the sentence. So "Come here now!" will be:
sI ji a je i no ju se jo.
Si ji a je i no ju se jo.
GLOSS: Go 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
DIRDirective (case)
motion arriving at, position next to
IMPImperative (mood)
command
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
exclame

Sentences like "No smoking!" will look like this:
sIhau huju jo.
Sihau huju jo.
GLOSS: Smoke NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-IMPImperative (mood)
command
exclame

Imperative sentences also can be used as declaring that someone had to do something in the past or has to do something in a future.
For example: I had to help him.
Ahq ja a je i ju e.
Ahø ja a je i ju e.
GLOSS: Help 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
IMPImperative (mood)
command
PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.

[top]Questions

All the questions are formed using "Ni" word. Note that Eklia doesn't use question mark at all: you always use dot at the end of the sentence.

The yes-no question starts with "Ni" and continues as a regular declarative sentence.
Example: Are you at home?
nI u ji a je uo i å se.
Ni u ji a je uo i å se
GLOSS: QInterrogative
question
be 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
home OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
in PRESPresent tense (tense)
current


In the wh-questions "Ni" goes before the thing you're asking about, where in English the would be wh-word.
Example: What do you do here?
nI ü ji a je i na se.
Ni ü ji a je i na se.
GLOSS: WHQWh-question
interrogative using question pronoun (Eng WH-words)
do 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current




When you make question about location or time, or when you , you use "Ni" as an article.
Example: Where are you?
U ji a ni i na se.
U ji a ni i na se.
GLOSS: Be 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
WHQWh-question
interrogative using question pronoun (Eng WH-words)
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current


Example: What killed him?
Üho ni a je i e.
Üho ni a je i e.
GLOSS: Kill WHQWh-question
interrogative using question pronoun (Eng WH-words)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech


Or

Example: Who killed him?
Üho ni nu a je i e.
Üho ni nu a je i e.
GLOSS: Kill WHQWh-question
interrogative using question pronoun (Eng WH-words)
man NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech


BUT:

Example: Who are you?
U ni ji a se.
U ni ji a se.
GLOSS: Be WHQWh-question
interrogative using question pronoun (Eng WH-words)
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current


[top]Complex sentences

[top]Relative clause

English definiting relative clause may be translated to Eklian in 2 ways:

Example sentence: I see the man who buys an apple.

1. Adjectival:
hA ja a je nu sa sqhi sa aino i se.
Ha ja a je nu sa aino sa søhi i se.
GLOSS: See 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
man ADJAdjectival
syntactic
buy ADJAdjectival
syntactic
apple OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current


In can be translated as: I see the apple-buyer man.

2. With "hase" keyword:
hA ja a hase je nu, sqhi je a je aino i se, i se.
Ha ja a hase je nu, søhi je a je aino i se, i se.
GLOSS: See 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
OBJCLObject clause (syntax)
word modifies or describes the main object
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
man, buy 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
apple OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
, OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current


Here the word "nu" (man) may be either in the main sentence or in the dependent.
We can extend the sentence adding the description of the man:
I see the man, the fool who buys an apple.

hA ja a hase je nu, sqhi je nusånë a je aino i se, i se.
Ha ja a hase je nu, søhi je nusånë a je aino i se, i se.
GLOSS: See 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
OBJCLObject clause (syntax)
word modifies or describes the main object
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
man, buy 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
fool NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
apple OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
, OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current


Note: In casual speech and writing people often drop last "i" if it has no postposition.
Note: In complex sentences if two or more sentences are in the same tense you can use the tense marker only at the last sentence.
The shortened form of the second sentence will be: hA ja a hase je nu, sqhi je aino i, se. Ha ja a hase je nu, søhi je aino i, se.

[top]Conditional sentences

Conditional sentences are formed using "Nul" (if) or"Hjo" (when) word at the beginning or at the end of the if-sentence.
Example: If we go to the shop, I will buy the new clothes.
nUl si jaa a je nasqhi i no o, sqhi ja a jee hånu sa ö i o.
Nul si jaa a je nasøhi i no o, søhi ja a jee hånu sa ö i o.
GLOSS: If go 1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
shop OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
DIRDirective (case)
motion arriving at, position next to
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
, buy 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
clothes ADJAdjectival
syntactic
new OBLOblique (argument)
indirect or demoted object
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech

OR
sI jaa a je nasqhi i no o nuj, sqhi ja a jee hånu sa ö i o.
Si jaa a je nasøhi i no o nul, søhi ja a jee hånu sa ö i o..

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