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Халық Фонологиялы Тарих - Khalik Phonological History
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p-turkic > khalik sc's
This public article was written by litrobotix, and last updated on 17 Jun 2020, 22:52.

[comments] Here we go:

*p --> k/_C

• *jap(u)r-gak "leaf" --> жакрақ [d͡ʒɑkrɑq] "leaf"
• *toprak "ground; earth" --> тукрақ [tʰʊkrɑq] "ground; earth; soil"

*p > pʰ

• *kerpič‎ "brick" > кирпеч [kʰɪrpʰe̞t͡ʃ] "brick" (final ч preserved under Russian influence)

*t --> tʰ

• *teke "billygoat" --> така [tʰɑkʰɑ] "billygoat; ram; he-goat"
• *ortu ~ *orta "middle" --> урта [ʊrtʰɑ] "middle; centre; central"

*k/K --> q (after/before back vowels)

• *tum-š-uk "beak" --> томшоқ [tʰõ̞mʃo̞q] "beak"
• *kara "black" --> қара [qɑrɑ] "black"

*k --> kʰ

• *keten "flax" --> китин [kʰɪtʰɪ̃n] "flax"
• *kēt-men "hoe" --> катман [kʰɑtmɑ̃n] "hoe"

*b --> m/#_ (sporadically)

• *bōjn "neck" --> муйон [mʊjõ̞n] "neck"
• *bol "abundant" --> мул [mʊl] "much; a lot of"

*b --> p

• *bašaq "arrowhead; ear" --> башақ [pɑʃɑq] "arrowhead; ear"
• *bāj "rich" --> бай [pɑj] "rich"

*d --> y/V_

• *edgü "good" --> ейе [e̞je̞] "yes"
• *(h)adak "foot" --> айақ [ɑjɑq] "foot"

*d --> t

• *du:lga "helmet" --> долоға [to̞ɫo̞ɣɑ] "helmet"
• *dāy "uncle" --> дай [dɑj] "uncle"

*g --> j/V_V (sporadically)

• *tügün "knot" --> төйөн [tʰø̞jø̞̃n] "knot; knob; bulge; node; clot; gnarl"

*g --> w --> v/V_V (sporadically)

• *bagɨrsak "intestines" --> бавырсақ [pɑvɯrsɑq] "intestines; guts; innards"
• *kugu "swan" --> қув [qʊv] "swan"

*g --> ğ/_V (sporadically)

• *qorgan "fortress" --> қурған [qʊrɣɑ̃n] "fortress; castle"
• *ulug "big; great" --> олоғ [o̞ɫo̞ɣ] "big; large"

*s --> h/#_

• *sabaq "stem; stalk" --> һабақ [hɑpɑq] "stem; stalk"
• *sekiŕ "eight" --> һикез [hɪkʰe̞z] "eight"

*č --> ş/_#

• *tïnč "calm" --> тынш [tʰɯnʃ] "calm; peaceful; quiet"
• *ardyč "juniper" --> артыш [ɑrtʰɯʃ] "juniper"

*ń --> y

• *āń(k) "moon; month" --> ай [ɑj] "moon; month"

*l --> ɫ

• *buluñ “corner; direction; edge” --> болоң [po̞ɫõ̞ŋ] "peninsula; cape"
• *jelin "udder" --> жилен [d͡ʒɪɫẽ̞n] "udder"

*ĺ --> ş

• *baĺč "head" --> баш [pɑʃ] "head; boss; main"
• *(i)āĺ- “to cross; surpass” --> аша [ɑʃɑ] "across; via; through"

*ŕ --> z

• *söŕ "word" --> һүз [hyz] "word; rumour; speech"
• *dīŕ "knee" --> тез [tʰe̞z] "knee"

*y --> j/#_

• *yẹlim "glue" > желем [d͡ʒe̞ɫẽ̞m] "glue"
• *yultuŕ "star" > жолдоз [d͡ʒo̞ɫd̥o̞z] "star"

*e --> i

• *esürük “drunk, intoxicated” --> исерек [ɪse̞re̞k] "drunk; intoxicated"
• *deriŋ "deep" --> тиран [tʰɪrɑ̃n] "deep"

*ö --> ü

• *kȫk "sky; blue" --> күк [kʰyk] "sky; blue"
• *ört- "cover" --> үртү [yrtʰy] "cover; hide; conceal"

*o --> u

• *kōr “glowing coals” > кур [kʰʊr] "cinder; ember"
• *boĺ "empty; free" --> буш [pʊʃ] "empty; vacant"

*i > e

• *bińŕ "awl" --> без [pe̞z] "awl"
• *yigit "youth" --> жеғет [d͡ʒe̞ɣe̞t] "young man"

*ï/ɨ > ı

• *okɨ- “to call, read, recite” --> уқы [ʊqɯ] "read"
• *yaŋïlïš “wrong, false, erroneous” --> жаңылыш [d͡ʒɑ̃ŋɯɫɯʃ] "wrong; incorrect"

*u --> o

• *bu-gün "today; this day" --> богөн [po̞kø̞̃n] "today"
• *tuzaq "snare; trap" --> тозақ [tʰo̞zɑq] "snare; trap"

*ü > ö

• *yügür- "run" --> жөгөрү [d͡ʒø̞kø̞ry] "run; sprint; jog"
• *yürek "heart" --> жөрик [d͡ʒø̞rɪk] "heart"
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