Plurals and Articles in Spitind
0▲ 0 ▼ 0
Plurals and Articles
This public article was written by Cyneweard, and last updated on 23 Jun 2017, 19:35.
To make the plural, -es is added at the end of the word (emeral → emerales). However:
• for the words that end in e, -s is added (iryame → iryames);
• for the words that end in a/o, the vowel is removed and -es is added (zeroūa → zeroūes);
• for the words that end in i, the i is removed and -yes is added (karaūari → karaūaryes);
• for the words that end in â, -s is added (salyâ → salyâs);
• for the words that end in å, -s is added (naġaśå → naġaśås);
• for the words that end in ė, -s is added (retė → retės);
• for the words that end in u preceded by a consonant (except for y), the u is removed and -ūes is added (jaku → jakūes);
• for the words that end in u preceded by a vowel or by y, the u is removed and -es is added (dabyu → dabyes).
Determinative articles must be used:
• to indicate specific objects, animals or people;
• with abstract nouns or with a general meaning, included the colors;
• with body parts and clothes;
• in the physical descriptions with the verb 'valsit' ('to have');
• with social class titles or professions followed by a name.
Determinative articles can not be used:
• with dates and days of the week;
• with temporals;
• with geographical names;
• with names of languages, only if they are not preceded by the word "language" itself;
• with proper nouns of people, animals and objects;
• before possesive adjectives;
• before descriptors;
• before numeral adjectives and pronouns;
• before unit of measures.
• the indeterminative article 'naś' is used when we are refering to a generic, indefined or still unkonown noun;
- the article 'naśe' is used:
• as a partitive article to indicate a part or a indeterminate quantity of a whole;
• as a plural indeterminative article (translated with some);
• as a personal pronoun to refer to a person we don't know;
• before a proper noun when there are many things or people with a same name (e.g.: naśe Ân - (a) Anne).