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Case particles in Žikku Wooha
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How case particles work
This public article was written by Tzui Micté, and last updated on 30 Mar 2022, 15:14.

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Menu 1. Introduction 2. The case particles of Žikku Wooha 3. Nominative case — ën/n 4. Accusative case — oru/ru 5. Dative case — me 6. Genitive case — re/ore 7. Allative case — ji 8. Locative case — chëo 9. Instrumental case — chiri/chëo 10. Comitative case — nori 11. Ablative case — hay 12. Terminative case — gow
[edit] [top]Introduction


Case particles are one of the three categories of particles in Žikku Wooha, along with conjunctive and sentence ending particles. As their names suggest, case particles are noun and pronoun modifiers which help establish the function of said words in a sentence. Case particles are always written as a suffix of the word it's modifying.

[edit] [top]The case particles of Žikku Wooha

CaseParticle
Nominativeën/n
Accusativeoru/ru
Dativeme
Genitivere
Allativeji
Locativechëo
Instrumentalchiri/chëo
Comitativenori
Ablativehay
Terminativegow


[edit] [top]Nominative case — ën/n

We use the nominative case to mark the subject of a sentence. "Ën" is used when the noun ends with a consonant, and "n" when the noun ends with a vowel.

Examples:

Irungkit — Fox
Irungkichën kuuyang yaw.
fox.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
cute.adjective-marker be.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The fox is cute.

Kawchishë — Breakfast
Kawchishën ussabing yada.
morning.meal.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
delicious.adjective-marker be.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

Breakfast was delicious.

[edit] [top]Accusative case — oru/ru

We use the accusative case to mark the direct object of a sentence. "Oru" is used when the noun ends with a consonant, and "ru" when the noun ends with a vowel.

Examples:

Iraykar — Salmon
Onnen iraykaroru kunjëda.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
salmon.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
catch.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

I caught a salmon.

Odanagi — Giant squid
Ewaykan odanagiru horokaw.
whale.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
big.squid.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
fight.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The whale fights a giant squid.

The only pronouns where accusative case is not marked are those that express quantities.

Dahare — Everything
Onnen dahare rangew.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
everything see.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

I see everything.

[edit] [top]Dative case — me

We use the accusative case to mark the indirect object of a sentence. Dative nouns usually go before accusative nouns.

Examples:

Wayuna — Animal
Onabin wayuname hažikonaru awkew.
human.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
animal.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
eat.GERGerund
verbal noun
.thing.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
give.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The person gives the animal food.

Han — Man
Chuen hanme baanaru atarada.
woman.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
man.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
flower.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
gift.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The woman gave the man a flower.

[edit] [top]Genitive case — re/ore

We use the genitive case to mark the possessor of a noun or the subject in a relative clause. "Ore" is used if the noun ends with a plosive or with "r", and "re" in any other cases.

Examples as a possessor marker:

Shipët — Girl
Shipëtore ruruko.
girl.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
dandelion
The girl's dandelion.

Ku — Island
Kure rakko.
island.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
village
The island's village.

Examples as a subject marker:

Hira — She/he/it
Hirare bukada hažikonan ussabing yada.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
prepare.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action
eat.GERGerund
verbal noun
.thing.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
delicious.adjective-marker be.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The food they prepared was delicious.

Iku — You
Ikure sayaw onabin osarang yaw.
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
love.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
human.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
nice.adjective-marker be.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The person you love is nice.

[edit] [top]Allative case — ji

We use the allative case to mark motion towards the noun it modifies.

Examples:

Hanë — Valley
Onnen hanëji naraw.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
valley.ALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
go.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

I go to the valley.

Hasar — Mountain
Ikun hasarji karada.
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
mountain.ALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
come.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

You came to the mountain.

[edit] [top]Locative case — chëo

We use the locative case to mark location where the action takes place. Locative nouns usually go right after nominative nouns.

Examples:

Sagi — Home
Onnen sagichëo terebishiru rangëda.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
home.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
television.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
see.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

I watched television at home.

Unaw — Garden
Ayrun unawchëo shubaw.
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
garden.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
play.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

We play in the garden

[edit] [top]Instrumental case — chiri/chëo

We use the instrumental case to mark the tool or the mean through which an action is done. "Chëo" is used for any means of transportation, and "chiri" in every other case. Instrumental nouns usually go right after locative or nominative nouns.

Examples with chëo:

Ngara — Ship
Onnen ngarachëo Peruji yokanew.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
ship.INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
Peru.ALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
travel.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

I travel to Peru by ship.

Bas — Bus
Nangken baschëo sagiji nochërëda.
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
bus.INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
home.ALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
return.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

You returned home by bus.

Examples with chiri:

Do — Hand
Ikun dochiri chinre paykiru bukada.
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
hand.INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
this.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
cake.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
prepare.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

I prepared this cake with my hands.

Chëhey — Arrow
Hanën chëheychiri yëkëru okarjëda.
man.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
arrow.INSTRInstrumental (case)
'with' 'using'
fish.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
kill.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

The man killed the fish with an arrow.

[edit] [top]Comitative case — nori

We use the comitative case to mark with whom the action takes place.

Examples:

Iku — You
Onnen ikunori hikkirji naraw.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.COMComitative (case)
'together with'
park.ALLAllative (case)
'to, onto'
go.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

I go to the park with you.

Nanna — Mother
Onnere nannanori yoasshëru hadew.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
mother.COMComitative (case)
'together with'
night.meal.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

I eat dinner with my mother.

[edit] [top]Ablative case — hay

We use the ablative case to mark motion from or away from the noun it modifies.

Examples:

Messhiko — Mexico
Hiran Messhikohay karaw.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
Mexico.ABLAblative (case)
away from
come.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

They come from Mexico.

Rewka — They
Onnen rewkahay kadoru pažëda.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ABLAblative (case)
away from
book.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
receive.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

I received a book from them.

[edit] [top]Terminative case — gow

We use the terminative case to mark the goal or target of an action, or at which point in time or space does the action end. Terminative nouns usually follow ablative nouns.

Examples:

Hikkir — Park
Irun ayrure ikarhay hikkirgow wakarëda.
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
house.ABLAblative (case)
away from
park.TERMTerminative (case)
'up to [this point]'
walk.PFVPerfective (aspect)
completed action

You walked from our house to the park.

Kawchi — Morning
Onnen kawchigow nibaw.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
morning.TERMTerminative (case)
'up to [this point]'
sleep.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

I will sleep until morning.
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