cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Sacred Earth Pronouns & Correlatives
1▲ 1 ▼ 0
Summary of Pronouns and Correlatives in Sacred Earth
This public article was written by moonstone, and last updated on 27 Feb 2019, 03:42.

[comments] Menu 1. Personal/Animate Pronouns 2. Subject Pronouns 3. Object Pronouns 4. Possessive Pronouns 5. Reflexive Pronouns 6. Impersonal/Inanimate Pronouns 7. Correlatives
Pronouns in  Sacred Earth decline to five cases (subject, object, abbreviated direct object, possessive, reflexive), as well as number (singular, dual, plural), gender (or lack thereof), and animacy.  Sacred Earth also utilizes fourth and fifth persons to indicate definitive people not present, and general/passive audiences ("they say that").

[top]Personal/Animate Pronouns

[top]Subject Pronouns


Subject pronouns are most commonly the agent sentence, or, the one performing the action (except in the instance of passive constructions). In  Sacred Earth, subjects appear at the beginning of the sentence.

nûkef ho̊ðalê. "You all are cleaning."


1st Person2nd Person3rd Person
Genderless
3rd Person
Masculine
3rd Person
Feminine
4th Person5th Person
Singular nûkkynhăntannönƀan
Dual ißemnøðkifhăflåfnösƀas
Plural ißßenûkefkyshăßlaß


[top]Object Pronouns


Object pronouns come in two forms: full and abbreviated. Abbreviated objects are attached to the front of the main verb (i.e. not an auxiliary part of a verb phrase such as ţâ or ğod). For sentences containing only a direct object, the forms can be used interchangably. For example:

iß ţa amaga ðî or iß ţa z'amaga can both translate to "I love you always," demonstrating use of the full object pronoun and abbreviated object repsectively.

For sentences contianing both direct and indirect objects, the abbreviated form should always be used for the direct object.

z'akûnǵimo fjød hûndolu "I gave you the dog."


When attaching an abbreviated object to a verb that begings with a vowel, the pronounciation can be ellided: č'eßkifiwi → t͡ʃɛsˑkifivi

If the verb begins with a consonant, the abbreviation is glottalized in its pronunciation: z'q̈ezilê → t͡sʔkʷɛt͡sil*n̪

1st Person2nd Person3rd Person
Genderless
3rd Person
Masculine
3rd Person
Feminine
4th Person5th Person
FullAbbr.FullAbbr.FullAbbr.FullAbbr.FullAbbr.FullAbbr.FullAbbr.
Singular m'ðîz'ˆq'änj'l'ßên'ƀyp'
Dual îdw'øn
Plural ðî


[top]Possessive Pronouns


Possessive pronouns indicate possessor of an object.

fjød leq̈oð ðâ hăni. "The book is mine."


1st Person2nd Person3rd Person
Genderless
3rd Person
Masculine
3rd Person
Feminine
4th Person5th Person
Singular miqiðuwikønihănitaṁinöfiƀani
Dual ßiqikifihăfilåminösiƀäsi
Plural wiqikøsihăßilaßi


[top]Reflexive Pronouns


Reflexive pronouns indicate to or by whom an action is done. In the case of a verb becoming reflexified (for example aßßem, "to rain" becomes aßßem-sefjô, "to shower (oneself)"), the reflexive pronoun is attached via a hyphen.

iß č'ƀo̊ğiwi iqyð. "I will bake it myself."
tan aßßaga-taṁyð. "She showers (herself)."


1st Person2nd Person3rd Person
Genderless
3rd Person
Masculine
3rd Person
Feminine
4th Person5th Person
Singular iqyðnûq̈yðkønyðhănyðtaṁyðnöfyðfänyð
Dual ißyðkifyðhăfyðlåmyðnösyðfäsyð
Plural wiqyðkøsyðhăßyðlaßyð


[top]Impersonal/Inanimate Pronouns


 Sacred Earth has a separate set of pronouns for inanimate objects (it).

SubjectObjectPossessiveReflexive
FullAbbr.
Singular čønčîč'čoṁîčønyð
Dual čøfčofîčøfyð
Plural čøßčoßîčøßyð


[top]Correlatives


Question
"what"
Indication
"this/that"
Indefinite
"some"
Universal
"each/every"
Negative
"no"
kj-fj-ƀ-ǵ-n-
Quality kjâ
"what a"
fjâ
"such a"
ƀâ
"some kind"
ǵâ
"every kind"

"no kind"
Reason-âm kjâm
"why"
fjâm
"therefore"
ƀâm
"for some reason"
ǵâm
"for all reasons"
nâm
"no reason"
Time-ûn kjûn
"when"
fjûn
"then"
ƀûn
"sometime"
ǵûn
"always"
nûn
"never"
Place-ulo kjulo
"where"
fjulo
"there"
ƀulo
"somewhere"
ǵulo
"everywhere"
nulo
"nowhere"
Manner-ås kjås
"how/as"
fjås
"thus/as"
ƀ˚as
"somehow"
ǵås
"in every way"
nås
"no-how/in no way"
Association-ew kjew
"whose"
fjew
"this/that one's"
ƀew
"someone's"
ǵew
"everyone's"
new
"no one's"
Thing-ød kjød
"what"
fjød
"this/that"
ƀød
"something"
ǵød
"everything"
nød
"nothing"
Amount-öð kjöð
"how much"
fjöð
"this/that much"
ƀöð
"some/a bit"
ǵöð
"all of it"
nöð
"none"
Individual kjô
"who/which one"
fjô
"this/that one"
ƀô
"someone"
ǵô
"everyone/each/all"

"no one"


Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 23-Aug-19 09:56 | Δt: 70.226ms