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Umofa
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umofa explain
This public article was written by dendana, and last updated on 7 Mar 2018, 09:26.

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5. Umofa
Menu 1. Nouns 2. Case-like clitics and particles 3. Modifiers 4. Modifiers: Determiners 5. Modifiers: Numerals 6. Modifiers: Adjectives 7. Pronouns 8. Noun-noun attribution 9. Verbs 10. Weather they 11. You and I 12. More tenses and such 13. Auxiliary constructions 14. Sentences 15. Relative clauses
[top]Nouns

Nouns all begin in vowels. To pluralize a noun, you can optionally use the modifier eb-.

uma 'person' uma ebu 'people'
Names of people always end in the clitic -se.
[top]Case-like clitics and particles
C- is the clitic for 'to, for, at'.
uma 'person' c-uma 'to a person, for a person, at a person'
Mi is the particle for 'from'.
uma 'person' mi uma 'from a person'
[top]Modifiers
Modifiers end in consonants. When modifying a noun, they take a suffix which is the first vowel of the noun they modify. You never use the form that ends in a consonant alone. Modifiers follow the nouns they modify. Modifiers include numbers, adjectives and determiners.
oto 'thing' uk- 'two' oto uko 'two things'
When they are turned into nouns, they take -a.
uk- 'two' uka 'the two'
To turn a modifier into a predicate, add -ip and treat it as a verb. If it begins in a consonant, add a prefixal o-.
uk- 'two' -ukip-, tukipa 'be two' nar- 'good' -onarip-, tonaripa 'be good'
All content question words like 'what' and 'how' can be turned into predicates, meaning 'be what' or 'be how', and can also be turned into noun forms, meaning 'something/anything' and 'somehow/anyhow'.
an- 'what' -anip-, tanipa 'be what' ana 'something, anything'
Modifiers can be converted to adverbs with the suffix -ako.
uk- 'two' ukako 'twice, in twos' (Disambiguation can be via: eco uke 'two times', c-alu uka 'in a set of two')
[top]Modifiers: Determiners
Determiners are un- 'this' and ak- 'that'.
[top]Modifiers: Numerals
Numerals include em- 'one' and uk- 'two'. Past the first two numbers, evens are formed with a root plus -id, while the odds are formed with that root plus -em. 3: atem- 4: atid- 5: ilem- 6: ilid- 7: asem- 8: asid- 9: unem- 10: unid- Ten and up are formed by compounding with unid- 'ten' and the digits. 11: emunid- 12: ukunid- 13: atemunid- Multiples of ten are formed by modifying unid-: 20: unid- uku 30: unid- atemu 40: unid- atidu For adding units, add -a to the unid- and insert the unit number as the first component, agreeing with any noun. 21: em- unida uku 22: uk- unida uku Hundred is a separate root, ixam-. Its free form ixama is appended after the rest of the number. 99: unem- unida unemu 100: ixam- 101: em- ixama 110: unid- ixama 111: em- unida ixama 200: ixam- uki 201: em- ixama uki 210: unid- ixama uki 220: unid- uku ixama uki 222: uk- unida uku ixama uki Thousand is akar-, with free form akara. 999: unem- unida unemu ixama 1000: akar- 1001: em- akara 1010: unid- akara 1011: em- unida akara 1100: ixam- akara 1101: em- ixama akara 1110: unid- ixama akara 1111: em- unida ixama akara 2000: akar- uka 2222: uk- unida uku ixama uki akara uka
[top]Modifiers: Adjectives
Adjectives include nar- 'good' and tor- 'red'. Possessive adjectives are:
singularplural
1ix-iny-
2im-iy-
3ir-id-
umama imu 'your (singular) mother'
[top]Pronouns
Formed with the pronominal consonant root plus a- and -a.
singularplural
1axaanya
2amaaya
3araada
To say 'you are', 'it is', etc. with a noun as the complement, just use the following tables. You can replace -a with whatever mood you want. 'To be' (same as pronoun form)
singularplural
1axaanya
2amaaya
3araada
Axa uma AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
person 'I am a person.' Enyima ixe ara Dedana-se. name POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-e AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
.3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
Dendana-PRProper
marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
'My name is Dendana.'
'To not be'
singularplural
1tuxatunya
2tumatuya
3turatuda
Tuxa umama NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.COPCopula
used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
person 'I am not a mother.'
[top]Noun-noun attribution
Follows the pattern possessed-possessor. The possessor may optionally take the clitic -ra afterwards.
usaga uma(-ra) food person-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
'the person's food'
You can also just list both nouns when they refer to the same entity.
umacaba tora adjective red-NMZNominaliser
makes other word a noun
'the adjective "red"'
[top]Verbs
Verbs are listed in the dictionary in their infinitive format, which is the root wrapped by t- prefix and -a suffix. Verbs conjugate for polarity, subject, and tense/mood. You may view this conjugation in the grammar tables or below.
PolaritySubject(Root)Mood/Tense
AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
a-
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
x-
REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
-a
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
tu-
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
ny-
FTFuture tense (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-eti
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
m-
FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
-iba
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
y-
CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
-olu
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
r-
JUSSUnknown code -eda
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
d-
The jussive mood is used for suggestions, commands, and wishes.
[top]Weather they
When you are talking about weather, such as 'it rained' or 'it is snowing', use the 3P subject for the 'it'.
adayoga AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-rain-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
'It is raining/It rained.'
[top]You and I
For conjoined noun phrase subjects with differing person (e.g. you and I, them and us, you and the octopus), always use 3P subject on the verb, and express the subject explicitly.
Ama we axa adunyagira Umofa 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
and 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-learn-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
Umofa 'You and I are learning Umofa.'
[top]More tenses and such
Verbs can take clitics which indicate more options for tense, aspect, and more. These attach after the object of the verb. If the verb has no object, they just stick to the end of the verb.
  • -ca 'completely'
  • -do 'even if' (use with conditional mood)
  • -doma 'even though'
  • -goba 'even, went so far as to'
  • -kamu 'imperfective/dynamic, right now'
  • -kewo 'always'
  • -pe 'a little', 'just'
  • -tiba 'because'
  • -tonabe 'please' (use with jussive mood)
  • -wala 'emphatic'
  • -wi ‘in order to’ (takes finite verb)
  • -xaaaaa 'calling attention, high emphasis on clause, guess what?' (often with jussive mood)
  • -xibi 'habitual'
  • -ya 'past perfective'
  • -yami 'at the time that, when'
  • -yibe 'since'
  • -yobiya 'rumor has it, I've heard that, people say’
They cannot be stacked.
Aroka-ca 'He ate it all up.' Axayolu-do 'Even if I wanted to...' Adunyagira-doma 'Even though they are learning...' Aroka una-goma 'She even ate this one.' Axunyagira Umofa-kamu 'I am learning/studying Umofa right now.' Anyebara-kewo 'We always sing.' Amebareda-pe! 'Sing a little!' Axegara-tiba 'Because I knew it...' Ayuceda-tonabe 'Please come you guys!' Axakuna ara-wala! 'I saw it!' Ayuceda-xaaaaa! 'Cooooooome y'all!' Adunyagira Umofa-xibi 'They learn Umofa.' Amebara-ya 'You (already) sang.' Amebara-yami 'When you sang...' Amebara-yibe 'Ever since you sang...'
[top]Auxiliary constructions
Conjugate the auxiliary as normal. It will be followed by the content verb in the infinitive.
Amaya tunyagira Umofa? AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-want-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb
-learn-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb
Umofa? 'Do you want to learn Umofa?'
[top]Sentences
Sentences are formed with SVO order. Question words do not shift to the beginning of the sentence as in English. Yes-no questions can be formed by adding a question mark with rising intonation, or optionally with the particle mu at the beginning of the sentence:
(Mu) amofa Umofa? (QInterrogative
question
) AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-speak-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
Umofa 'Do you speak Umofa?'
[top]Relative clauses
Relative clauses are just the same as regular clauses, with the clitic -yu after the highlighted word.
Uma-yu arofa Umofa person-RELRelative AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-speak-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
Umofa 'The person who speaks Umofa' Axoka usaga-yu AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-eat-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
food-RELRelative 'The food I eat' Axokiba usaga-yu aratemipa? AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-eat-FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
food-RELRelative AFFAffirmative (polarity)
positive, opposite of NEG
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-where-PREDPredicative
expressions typically following a copula
-REALRealis mood (mood)
actual, real events
'Where is the food I was about to eat?'


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