cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles ✎ Edit Article ✖ Delete Article » Journal
Dinasi verbs
1▲ 1 ▼ 0
A look at Dinasi verb conjugation
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 20 Dec 2018, 01:05.

[comments]
[Public] ? ?
Overview

Like many other agglutinating and polysynthetic languages, Dinasi relies heavily on verb conjugation to convey information. As in many such languages, verbs in Dinasi convey most of the information in a sentence, and one verb form can form an entire sentence due to the amount of information contained in it. This article will explain how verbs are conjugated and what role they play in the language.

Verb roots

The main part of any verb in Dinasi is the verb root, to which a great deal of affixes can be attached. Most verb roots in Dinasi are either monosyllabic or disyllabic, though many larger roots exist.

A few examples of verb roots are:

aál - to finish
áaq - to forget
deš - to live
géš - to entertain
gwáar - to listen
jaš - to fight

As you will notice, verb roots can begin with either a vowel or a consonant, but always end in consonants.

Verb class

A verb's "class" is determined by the sound its root begins with. Class A verbs begin with a consonant, and class B verbs begin with a vowel. The only real difference in morphology between the classes is the pronominal prefixes they take.

The pronominal prefixes for each class are as follows:

Class A
Ji- I
La- you (sg.)
E- he/she/it
Mu- we
Si- you (pl.)
Ko- they

Class B
Jakw- I
Al- you (sg.)
Est- he/she/it
Men- we
S- you (pl.)
Kor- they

This is the general rule for verbs. However, these forms do change based on the noun that is incorporated into the verb, which will be discussed later in the article.

Conjugation

As previously discussed, each verb root takes a pronominal prefix to specify who performs the action. From there, specific meaning is derived through a series of suffixes. The order of these suffixes is shown below:

NEG - optional prefix - pronominal prefix - incorporated noun - verb root - causative (optional) - reflexive/reciprocal - mood - aspect - tense - voice - optional suffix

Noun incorporation will be discussed in detail later in the article. For now, let's look at a few examples of verb forms without incorporated nouns.

Jidáajoteéšáa - "I wanted to disappear."
Ji - 1st person sg. pronominal prefix
dáajot - verb root "disappear"
eéš - desiderative mood indicator
áa - past tense suffix

Ladékonayi - "You would begin to remove."
La - 2nd person sg. pronominal prefix
dék - verb root "remove"
on - conditional mood indicator
ay - inceptive aspect indicator
i - present tense suffix

Makogáakwerepónaka - "And they will not try to stop being worshipped."
Ma - negative prefix
ko - 3rd person pl. pronominal prefix
gáakw - verb root "worship"
er - conative mood indicator
ep - cessative aspect indicator
ó - future tense suffix
na - passive voice suffix
ka - "and"

This morphology is entirely regular; irregular verbs do not exist in Dinasi. Due to this extensive conjugation system, very few auxiliary verbs are necessary.

Noun incorporation

The vast majority of the time, verbs include an incorporated noun. Incorporation is usually mandatory with a few exceptions, and nouns can be incorporated in any case other than nominative.

As previously mentioned, the incorporated noun can affect which class of pronominal prefixes the verb takes. If the noun begins with a different sound than the verb root itself, it switches the prefix class. Thus, a class A verb with an incorporated noun beginning in a vowel will take class B prefixes, and vice-versa for a class B verb with an incorporated noun beginning with a consonant.

A few examples:

Jakwágwíiškúkgwémáa - "I drove the vehicle."
Here, the incorporated noun is ágwíiškú, with the accusative suffix -k.

Mugištúqakmóomi - "We drive the horses."
Here, the incorporated noun, gištú, is in the plural, and again takes the accusative suffix -k.

Kogáadédigeédó "They will argue about the exam."
Here, the incorporated noun is gáadé, with the suffix -di, indicating the circumlative case.

Pronouns, which decline identically to nouns, can also be incorporated.

A simple example:

Jilakšéri - "I see you." with the pronoun la "you" in the accusative.

Stative verbs

Most adjectives are expressed with the use of stative verb roots. A few examples:

pán - to be strong
únúsp - to be blind
súč - to be green

For comparisons and superlatives, the verb roots are extended using the suffixes -áš and -ír, respectively.

pán - to be strong
pánáš - to be stronger
pánír - to be strongest

✎ Edit Article ✖ Delete Article
Comments
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 21-Apr-24 15:32 | Δt: 322.526ms