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Verbal Prefixes (Spacial Prefixes and Derivational Prefixes)
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Menu 1. Spacial Prefixes 2. Derivational Prefixes 3. Semi- or Non-Productive affixes
You will see many Chinese characters used in this article, but I would like to remind you that these are only placeholders until I eventually get around to designing and adding the appropriate characters to the font.

This article covers spacial and derivational verbal prefixes.

[edit] [top]Spacial Prefixes

In order to discuss spacial verbal prefixes, it is necessary to explain briefly the way in which Qgam verbs and particles indicate spacial relationships. Observing the way in which Qgam verbs encode manner of movement, that is, the type of movement such as walking, running, crawling, etc., and the path of movement, that is, into, along, through, under, etc., the language may be described as a primarily satellite-framed language, meaning that while manner is encoded in the verb root itself, path is indicated by means of extraverbal particles and prefixes.

However, verbs also exhibit characteristics of verb framing, namely through the use of the aforementioned verbal prefixes, which mark path of movement. An outline is provided below:

Postpositional and Nominal Particles
Particles added to nouns may be divided into two types: adpositional particles and nominal particles. The difference is manifested by the positioning of the predicative direct article ar, which appears after the noun and before the postpositional particles, but after nominal particles.

Postpositional particles:

dito; toward; at yimin; at至(往) tadias far as; upto gwofrom; out of

Nominal particles:

tatain front of gwaabehind laawinside eamon top of


PP:宅㇉往 tsa 'r dito the house宅㇉從 tsa 'r gwofrom the house
NP:宅前㇉ tsa tata 'r(in) front of the house宅上㇉ tsa eam ar(on) top of the house

It can be seen from this list that nominal particles invariably mark static locations, while, with the exception of yim, postpositional particles indicate basic movement.

Movement prefixes
More complex paths are marked through the use of verbal prefixes, which appear to the left of derivational prefixes, but to the right of aspectual prefixes.

The following examples show the verb "go", and the verb mwaĝ "be drawn to" derived with the derivational prefix mo- (which generally derives involuntary or semi-involuntary acts). These two verbs are used here with both movement prefixes and aspectual prefixes:

go込徂stqaĝgo intomwaĝbe drawn to沿敀jitmuaĝbe drawn along
畢徂skaĝhave gone畢込徂sakstqaĝhave gone into屢敀bismuaĝbeing drawn to屢沿敀bisjitmuaĝbeing drawn along

Following are some examples of spacial prefixes. Certain combinations may have semantically specific meanings.

st(q)- typically indicates movement into a location. For verbs that do not indicate movement, it can indicate that the action is exhaustive, extensive, or complete. The /ʔ/ is elided on verbs with consonant onsets.

go込徂stqaĝgo in
seaput込置stseaput in

hm- shows movement past or beyond. For non-movement verbs, it can indicate temporal position related to the future. This is related to han-, a perfective marker seen below.

hwofly越飛hmhwofly by; fly past
yeplan; calculate越企hmyeplan ahead
baaĝrun越跑hmbaaĝovertake; overwhelm

沿 jit-: moving along

ors- (ars)-: near; close to

was-: far from

ļaa-: stationary; in one location

šĝ-: returning to

[edit] [top]Derivational Prefixes

Qgam employs numerous derivational prefixes to create new verbs. Some prefixes are highly productive and may be used with any verb, while others are semi-productive or non-productive, existing primarily or only in predetermined compounds.

A note on pronunciation:
Many of the prefixes violate permissible syllable structure, in that several end with consonants not permissible in the coda as per Qgamic phonotactic rules. When these suffixes are used, the final consonant of the prefix is treated as part of the initial consonant cluster of the following syllable. Thus, a word such as paltka (pal- + tka) is pronounced as pa.ltka [pʌ l̩tkʌ], that is, a simple CV syllable followed by a syllable with a complex initial cluster which begins with a semi-syllabic /l/.

[edit] [top]Semi- or Non-Productive affixes

pal- (): verbs of purpose or intent:

gopalaĝ, plaĝembark; undertake
tkawalkpaltkaadvance; proceed
damstrike; hitpaldamassail; assault; raid

yis- (): collective agentive verbs. This suffix may derive verbs that require plural subjects as well as verbs that generally but not always require plural subjects:

arsjaarriveyisarsjaconverge; assemble(see ors- above)
rekianger (vt)yisrekiargue; quarrel(see re- below)
nwocollect (vt)yisnuoharvest; reap

ĝ- (): semantically reciprocal action. There is some overlap with yis- above, as they both take plural subjects; however, this prefix is more specialized, as it only represents actions that are performed reciprocally. it also differs from the productive reciprocal prefix __ (see below).

arnaleaveĝarnapart ways; split up

han-; hm- (): semantically perfect or completed verbs. Semantically related to the spacial prefix hm- above.

berburn; ignitehmberburn; char; incinerate
çamlook; watch殫見hançamrecognize; know
weafinish; endhnweacomplete; be done with

biĝ- (): negates the actions of verbs, much like English un-. This affix derives from the Middle Kwang negative word bjang:


mo- (): indicates that the act of the verb is performed semi- or entirely involuntarily:

gomwaĝbe drawn (to)
致浮rejaarcast; launch乍致浮morejaarlose; drop(see re- below)

baš-: denotes actions that are performed repeatedly and/or continuously.

rospeakbašrochat; converse

l-: nominalizes verbs, sometimes with significant semantic differences.


re(d)-: causative affix.

kiangry致怒rekianger; make angry

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