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Verbs
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constructing verbs
This public article was written by ávysso amygdalí, and last updated on 11 Dec 2016, 22:47.

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Menu 1. Introduction 2. Categories 3. Pre-appended Particles 4. Post-appended Particles 5. Prefixes 6. Suffixes 7. Complete Form

[edit] [top]Introduction

Verbs are contained within two categories, and are marked in four different ways: pre-appended particles, post-appended particles, prefixes, and suffixes, applied as shown in the image below. Within each of these categories, there are sometimes overlapping values, in which multiple of one type of affix or particle can be applied. In this situation, there is a specified order of marking that must be followed.



[edit] [top]Categories

Verbs are categorized based on their required transitivity.
Mono-transitive Verbs (MTRs)
MTRs have the stem sek- (sek-) and can only be transitive when used correctly. This applies to verbs that, by the terms of the language, require an object. For example, sekpeset (sekpeset) means "to be a member of." It would be ungrammatical to make a statement like "I am a member of" because it is considered incomplete--you're a member of what?
Bi-transitive Verbs (BTRs)
BTRs have the stem tam- (tam-) and can be either transitive or intransitive. Verbs that aren't considered 'carry' as much information as MTRs fit into this category, and some of them are even encouraged to be intransitive (ex. to write/fly, tamoman). It makes just as much sense to say "I write" as it does "I write letters" because neither statement is 'missing' information.

[edit] [top]Pre-appended Particles

Pre-appended particles (shortened to PRPs) are not directly attached to the verb. They are separate, but have a defined order in front of the verb and cannot appear without a verb following them. The PRPs of verbs are the:
    PREC, precative mood

    IMP, imperative mood

    PROH, prohibitive mood

    RES, resultative mood

    POE.WK, weak poetic mood

The first three, PREC, IMP, and PROH, are mutually exclusive; i.e., a verb cannot be imperative and prohibitive at once. RES and POE.WK can be used simultaneously. They are ordered:

POE.WK RES [PREC|IMP|PROH] {verb}


[edit] [top]Post-appended Particles

Post-appended particles (shortened to PSPs) are not directly attached to the verb. Just like PRPs, they are separate, and cannot appear without a verb preceding them. The PSPs of verbs are the:
    YN.AFF/NEG, yes-no affirmative and negative

    POE.STR, strong poetic mood

    all evidentiality

POE.STR is set after either YN. The marks for evidentiality are mutually exclusive. They are ordered:

{verb} (evidentiality) YN.[AFF|NEG] POE.STR


[edit] [top]Prefixes

Prefixes are attached directly to the beginning of a verb. The verb prefixes are:
    all conjugations

    grammatical marks

Conjugations are mutually exclusive, and are only applied to a verb whose stem (tam- or sek-) has first been removed. Grammatical marks can only be applied to infinitive forms of verbs. These two types of prefixes would never occur simultaneously, so they do not need to be ordered.

[edit] [top]Suffixes

Suffixes are attached directly to the end of a verb. The verb suffixes are:
    COND, conditional mood
- if
    CAP, capable mood
- can/able to
    NEC, necessitative mood
- must
    REP, reputative mood
- supposed to
    SBJV, subjunctive mood
- doubt
    OPT, optative mood
- wish/hope
    Q, interrogative mood
- questioning
Of these seven, only the OPT and SBJV must be interchanged. The order is:

{verb}.COND.CAP.[SBJV|OPT].NEC.REP.Q


[edit] [top]Complete Form

This is the complete construction of a fully-marked verb in Ssamaf.

POE.WK RES [PREC|IMP|PROH] (conjugation).{verb}.COND.CAP.[SBJV|OPT].NEC.REP.Q (evidentiality) YN.[AFF|NEG] POE.STR


continue to:
*grammar marks
*evidentiality
*moods
*conjugations
*interrogatives
*figurative language
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