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From Mañi to Takman
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sound changes
This public article was written by dendana, and last updated on 13 Oct 2018, 01:14.

[comments] SCE file:

C=ñ,b,ch,d,ʼ,g,h,k,l,m,n,p,r,t,tł,w,x,y,z,ł,ŋ,ŗ,ř,ļ,ʔ,š
V=a,à,è,ì,ò,ù,e,i,o,u,ų,ų̀,ą,ą̀,į,į̀,aa,ii,uu,àa,ìi,ùu,ee,oo,èe,òo
plosive=b,ch,d,ʼ,g,k,p,t,tł,ʔ
vlplosive=ch,ʼ,k,p,t,tł,ʔ
vdplosive=b,d,g
nasal=m,n,ñ,ŋ
retroflex=ļ,ŗ,ř
mid_short=e,o,è,ò
high_short=i,u,ì,ù
high=i,ì,ii,ìi,u,ù,uu,ùu
rounded=o,u,ò,ù,oo,uu,òo,ùu
front=e,i,è,ì,ee,ii,èe,ìi
e=e,è,ee,èe
o=o,ò,oo,òo
i=i,ì,ii,ìi
u=u,ù,uu,ùu
a=a,à,aa,àa
short=a,e,i,o,u,à,è,ì,ò,ù
long=aa,ee,ii,oo,uu,àa,èe,ìi,òo,ùu
graphs=.,a,à,è,ì,ñ,ò,ù,b,ch,d,e,ʼ,g,h,i,k,l,m,n,o,p,r,t,tł,u,w,x,y,z,ł,ŋ,ŗ,ř,ų,ų̀,ą,ą̀,į,į̀,ļ,aa,ii,uu,àa,ìi,ùu,ee,oo,èe,òo,ʔ,š,f

//Rewrites

ʼ > ʔ
x > š

//Morphological changes

nn > zèn / #_#
+k / _[C]ko#
-k / k[C]_o#

//Vowel Dissimilation 1

į > e / _[C][C]i | _[C][C]į | _[C][C]ì | _[C][C]į̀
į̀ > è / _[C][C]i | _[C][C]į | _[C][C]ì | _[C][C]į̀
ų > o / _[C][C]u | _[C][C]ų | _[C][C]ù | _[C][C]ų̀
ų̀ > ò / _[C][C]u | _[C][C]ų | _[C][C]ù | _[C][C]ų̀
a > e / _[C][C]ą | _[C][C]ą̀

į > e / _[C]i | _[C]į | _[C]ì | _[C]į̀
į̀ > è / _[C]i | _[C]į | _[C]ì | _[C]į̀
ų > o / _[C]u | _[C]ų | _[C]ù | _[C]ų̀
ų̀ > ò / _[C]u | _[C]ų | _[C]ù | _[C]ų̀
a > e / _[C]ą | _[C]ą̀

//Retroflex changes
[high_short] > [mid_short] / [retroflex]_ | _[retroflex]
į > e / [retroflex]_ | _[retroflex]
ų > o / [retroflex]_ | _[retroflex]
į̀ > è / [retroflex]_ | _[retroflex]
ų̀ > ò / [retroflex]_ | _[retroflex]
ļ > l
ŗ > r
ř > l

//Nasal vowels

ą > aa
ą̀ > àa
į > ii
į̀ > ìi
ų > uu
ų̀ > ùu

//Vowel Dissimilation 2
[e] > [i] / _[C][a]
[e] > [i] / _[a]
[o] > [u] / _[C][a]
[o] > [u] / _[a]
[i] > [e] / _[C][high]
[i] > [e] / _[high]
[u] > [o] / _[C][high]
[u] > [o] / _[high]

//Dorsal nasals

ŋ > w / _[rounded] | _aa | _àa
ŋ > ñ / _[front]
ŋ > n / _[a]
ñ > ŋ / _#

//Lateral obstruents

tł > l / _#
tł > ʔ / _[C]
tł > ł
ł > š / [V]_[front]
ł > ch / #_
ł > h / _#
[short]ł > [long] / _[C]
ł > l

//Edh

-z / _#
z > ʔt / #_
z > l

//Glottal stop

ʔ > ʔp / #_[rounded]
ʔ > k / #_[a]
ʔ > ch / #_[front]

//Clusters

kw > ʔp
tw > ʔt
ʔk > ʔ
ŋw > m
nr > nd
[plosive] > ʔ / _[nasal]
-[nasal] / _[nasal]
p > b / [nasal]_
t > d / [nasal]_
k > g / [nasal]_

//Plosive loss

+f / [vdplosive]_#
f > à / [a][C][C]_
f > è / [e][C][C]_
f > ì / [i][C][C]_
f > ò / [o][C][C]_
f > ù / [u][C][C]_
[plosive] > ʔ / _[C] ! [C]_
[short][vlplosive] > [long] / _#
-[vlplosive] / [long]_#
mb > ʔp
nd > ʔt

//Language-specific

//Consonants

ŋg > h
ŋ > n
mw > m
r > ʔt / #_

//Epenthetic ʔ
+ʔ / [a]_[a]
+ʔ / [e]_[e]
+ʔ / [i]_[i]
+ʔ / [o]_[o]
+ʔ / [u]_[u]

//Vowel breaking

e > ia / _[C][e]
è > ìà / _[C][e]
ee > ie / _[C][e]
èe > ìè / _[C][e]
e > ea / _[C][o]
ee > ea / _[C][o]
è > èà / _[C][o]
èe > èà / _[C][o]
[o] > [u] / _[C][e] | _[C][o]

//Vowel shortening

[long] > [short] / _[C][long]
[long] > [short] / _[long]

//Final dorsal nasals

eŋ > aiñ
èŋ > àìñ
eeŋ > eiñ
èeŋ > èìñ
i > iə / _ŋ
ì > ìə / _ŋ
iiŋ > iiñ
ìiŋ > ìiñ

//Palatal obstruents

š > s
ch > š
-s / _#
-š / _#
-h / _#

//Final Rewrites

-hà / #_
-hàa / #_
a > á
e > é
i > í
o > ó
u > ú
à > a
è > e
ì > i
ò > o
ù > u
aa > áa
ee > ée
ii > íi
oo > óo
uu > úu
àa > aá
èe > eé
ìi > ií
òo > oó
ùu > uú
ʔt > ɗ
ʔp > ɓ
ch > č
ʔ > k / #_[nasal]
ʔ > •
š > x


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