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History of Brytten
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a history of the nations of britain, with particular focus on the history of language on the island
This private article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 16 Sep 2023, 14:04.

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Menu 1. situation before 1066 2. situation before 1066
[edit] [top]situation before 1066

Before the arrival of our ancestors, the Geótes, Ængle and Seaxen, the main groups inhabiting the island of Brytten were the Breattes, who spoke an ancestor of modern Wýlsc, and were organised into a number of local kingdoms following the departure of the Romans. Around a similar time to the Seaxen landing, the Scottes began to arrive in modern Suðege from Írland, in an area known in Scyttisc as Eara-Gaidhel, or "the coast of the forreigners". They quickly took over much of northern Scottland, and established the Rìoghachd na h-Alba, and began to assimilate the local Brettes, establishing scyttisc as the language of the new kingdom.

In the southern Brytten, a similar process occured as the Ængle-Seaxen, who arrived from modern-day Germanie and Denemarc quickly expanded to take over a territory that covered most of modern-day Ængland and southern Scottland. It is disputed whether the local brettes were annihilated by these Germanisc migrants or were assimilated through intermarriage. However, modern evidence and mentions of Bryttisc in many parts of ancient Ængland in old records suggests that there were sizeable numbers of Brettisc speakers in many areas even past 1066. However, for the most part, the Ænglisc language quickly supplanted earlier Bryttisc in most parts of the South-East of Brytten. The old Bryttisc languages survived in the West however, evolving into modern wýlsc and cornwýlsc which are still spoken today. The Seaxen organised themselves into 7 "rícu", known in Ald-Ænglisc as Mierce, Westseaxna ríce, Eastseaxna ríce, Suþseaxna ríce, Eastangla ríce, Norþanhymbra ríce, Mierce and Cantware .

In the late 8th century, viking raiders from Skandinavien began to harry the coasts of Brytten, and in 865, the Great Hǽþen Army invaded much of Eastern Brytten, taking Eastangla, large parts of Mierce and Norþanhymbra and establishing the Denelahe. The remaining Ængelcyne united under Cyng Ælfréd the Great against this common enemy, and by the year 924, all of Ængland was united under king Æðelstán. However, this Skandinavynisc presence had a lasting impact on the language of the Denelahe. Already by 1066, parts of Eastangle were influenced by the Denisc language of the invaders, and in the North this would only be compounded by later Norþwegisc invasions.

[edit] [top]situation before 1066

In 1066 following the death of King Eádweard the confessor, there were several claimants to the Ænglisc throne, but it was King Herweld who was crowned King. The first of these claimants to arrive on the south coast of Britain was Duke Willehelm of Normandig in Northern France, who was quickly Defeated in the battle of Rig. However, the Norþwegisc King Herweld Hardræðe, who enlisted the help of King Herweld's brother Tostig, arrived later that year in Norþhymbra. After a series of indecisive battles across the North, the two rival kings signed the treaty of Wǽwric which agreed to a partition of the nation.

The treaty decided that the lands of the fíf Dene bryg and Norþhymbre would be ceded to Hardræðe, whilst everything to the south and east would remain in Ænglisc hands. Furthermore, at the end of the century, the Scottes, taking advantage of political instability in the two southern Kingdoms, invaded and took all the lands north of the river Tés. Thus, from a nation that had just been unified just under 200 years before, the Engle-Seaxen were now divided between three different Kingdoms, and thus pulled into three different spheres of influence, with the Northern Kingdom being influenced by the peoples of Skandinavien, whilst the Engle-Seaxen of Scottland pulled into the Celtic sphere of influence.

The effects of this on the language are profound, with the languages of the northern Engle-Seaxen of Scottland and the Northern Kingdom begining to evolve into the ancestor of modern-day hymbrisc, through admixture from both gaelic and old-norse, whilst the speech of the south evolving into modern day Ænglisc, with comparatively low amounts of influence from the skandinavynisc languages.
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