1▲ 1 ▼ 0
much synthesis, wow
This public article was written by protondonor, and last updated on 28 Nov 2020, 20:09.
[comments] mnyverbal morphologydiachronic morphologymorphologyverbsngerupic
4. Mañi names
5. Mañi verbsMañi verb, unlike its predecessor Wa Ñi, is highly synthetic, with tense, mood, evidentiality, negation, and polypersonal agreement. The overall structure of the verb is:
[top]Mood and aspect stem changes
While evidentials, subject and object markers, and tenses are documented in CWS grammar tables, mood and aspect are not (because PhoMo is hard). Mood and aspect are expressed via changes to the stem, including tone changes and reduplication, rather than affixes.
Irrealis: low tone on the last high vowel of the stem.
Conditional: final vowel of the stem is lengthened, with a low tone on the first mora.
Frequentative/iterative: reduplication of the stem.
An example of a maximally inflected verb is nąŋèriìzeʼŗàaʼzeʼŗàaʼŗùupaʼą̀nįŋ INFRInferential (mood/evidential)
reports or infers without confirming-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you).ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient-push-CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...~FREQFrequentative (aspect)
repeated or customary action-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech-NEGNegative (polarity)
not-out "I won't push you out over and over." Let's break this down into its constituent morphemes:
- ną- inferential evidential, indicating that the action being described wasn't directly witnessed by anyone, but is conjectured to occur. This is common in future, conditional, and irrealis forms. It originates from Wa Ñi do "inside".
- ŋè- first person singular subject, originating from Wa Ñi ŋè (which was originally ergative; however, ŋè is now used in Mañi as the subject of an intransitive verb as well).
- riì- second person singular object, originating from Wa Ñi riì.
- -LV conditional. This is not an affix, but represents lengthening the final vowel of the verb and adding a low tone to the first mora. In this case, tořa is transformed to tořàa. This construction is inherited directly from Wa Ñi.
- stem reduplication indicates frequentative or iterative aspect. This is a de novo construction in Mañi.
- -ŗùu future tense, originating from Wa Ñi dùu "above".
- -pa negation, originating from Wa Ñi -pa.
- -ʼą̀nįŋ out, a verbal directional affix originating from Wa Ñi xòdiŋ