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Forming a sentence in Cuuyamu
2▲ 2 ▼ 0
The joys of syntax!
This public article was written by Elinnea, and last updated on 29 Oct 2016, 21:13.

[comments] Menu 1. Basic sentences 2. Noun phrases 3. Verb phrases 4. Imperatives 5. Polar questions 6. Non-polar questions 7. Conjunctions 8. Still to add
?FYI...
This article is a work in progress! Check back later in case any changes have occurred.

[top]Basic sentences

In Cuuyamu, a verb on its own can be a perfectly good sentence. Since the verb includes suffixes to agree with both the subject and the object, and pronouns can be dropped, the verb alone is grammatical.

Wadiiuwujaa. Wadiiuluadtu.
love-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.OBJObject (argument). love-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument)
I love you. She loves them.

If a verb's subject is being expressed, the noun follows the verb.

Ñabushu ñàamu.
hide-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
cat
The cat hid.

When a verb has both a subject and an object, they typically appear in VSO order. The object marker dzaal appears at the start of the object's noun phrase. The forms of both the subject and the object are fixed, regardless of their position in the sentence, so their roles are determined by a combination of word order, location of the object marker, and person/number/animacy agreement of the verb.

Atiqnaqaja azinaati dzaal ñàamu.
see-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) robin OBJObject (argument) cat.
The robin will see the cat.

Atiqnaqaja ñàamu dzaal azinaati.
see-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) cat OBJObject (argument) robin
The cat will see the robin.

[top]Noun phrases

Most of the ways a noun can be altered or specified in a sentence come in the form of separate words that precede the noun.

Adjectives
Adjectives and other noun descriptors are usually formed from verbs. The suffix -ita is added to a verb stem to indicate that it is being used to modify a noun.

Bazwiqshu nááita jipa.
swim-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
be_tall-ADJAdjectival
syntactic
man
The tall man swam.

Determiners
There are no articles in Cuuyamu, but there is a series of determiners. They use a three-way deictic distinction (proximal, medial, and distal), separate determiners for singular and plural, and different forms for whether they are attached to the subject or object of the sentence.

HereThereOver there
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.SUBSubject (argument)
anluçalusinlu
SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.OBJObject (argument)
anpiçapisinpi
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.SUBSubject (argument)
anlishçalishsinlish
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.OBJObject (argument)
anputuçaputusinputu

Sàanijtan çalu ñitu.
fall_over-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
that.DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
.SUBSubject (argument) chair
That chair (over there) fell over.

If the determiner is applied to a sentence's object, it replaces the dzaal marker.

Tuliidizinwa çadi ba wacu anpi míiña.
throw-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.OBJObject (argument) you.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
to me that.MEDMedial (proximity)
not too far from speaker; close to addressee
.OBJObject (argument) ball
You will throw that ball to me.

If there is both a determiner and an adjective, the determiner comes first.

Babaazwaja wacu ba sinlu çááj anpi zatsita júú.
give-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.OBJObject (argument) me to that.DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
.SUBSubject (argument) girl this.OBJObject (argument) be_yellow-ADJAdjectival
syntactic
flower
I will give that girl this yellow flower.

Possession
Possession of a noun is indicated by the following structure: Possessor possessive_particle Thing_Possessed. There are two words used to indicate possession. The first, júún, is used for inanimate objects that are owned by animate subjects.

Tsàanlupu çááj dzaal shu shu júún míiña.
play-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.OBJObject (argument) girl OBJObject (argument) boy POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
ball
The girl is playing with the boy's ball.

The other word is tali, used for possession by association. It is usually used for people, animals, and body parts or other inalienable parts of a person. It can also be used for specific parts of inanimate objects, such as a pot's lid.

Cuuyashuja shu tali ñaji dzaal çááj tali ñama.
speak-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) boy POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
father OBJObject (argument) girl POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
mother
The boy's father was talking to the girl's mother.

It is possible to use the same construction with pronouns (such as wacu tali çati for "my sister") but that is not common. Typically determiners are used instead, with the proximal, medial, and distal determiners corresponding to English's my, your, and his/her, respectively.

Nutwapu sinpi itushqa.
go-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.OBJObject (argument) that.MEDMedial (proximity)
not too far from speaker; close to addressee
.OBJObject (argument) house
I will go to your house.

Numbers
Numbers also come before nouns that they modify. Up to ten, they must match the animacy of the noun. (See the separate article Counting in Cuuyamu for more information.)

Sàanijtsa ji ñaal.
fall_over-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
five.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
tree
Five trees fell down.

If all three of the noun-modifiers explained so far are used in the same noun phrase, they come in the following order:
Determiner Number Adjective.

Manaati nááci anlish lúú cinicita shuti.
very be_tall-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense) these.SUBSubject (argument) three.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
be_silly-ADJAdjectival
syntactic
brother
My three silly brothers are very tall.

[top]Verb phrases

In most cases, modifications to a verb will also come before the verb, although verb phrases have more exceptions than noun phrases.

Verbal Complements
I use a non-standard term of "verbal complements" to refer to a wide variety of pieces of information that complete a verb. All verbal complements have default positions where they normally appear in a sentence, or they can be moved to the end of the sentence, especially when added as an afterthought or clarification. These are the main types of complements:

Verbs that complete the main verb are marked with the suffix -i and come before the main verb. This is most commonly used with plain verb stems, but it can apply to entire verb phrases as well.
Nuti siiwa.
go-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
[clause] that [clause]
be_happy-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time

I will be happy to go.
Tsàan ap daziitsii sajuutnuwa.
play after school_day-CMPComplementiser (syntactic)
[clause] that [clause]
allow-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time

I have permission to play after school.

Specific temporal information comes immediately after the verb. This includes times or days that pinpoint the action to a certain time.
Tsàanshu wuduu çááj.
play-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
yesterday girl
The girl was playing yesterday.

Generic temporal information comes before the verb.
Zíípa tsàantsansalu çááj.
daily play~HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.PRSPresent tense (tense) girl
The girl plays every day.

Complements involving an animate being are placed after the subject.
Tuliidilupu çááj ba shu dzaal míiña.
throw-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) girl to boy OBJObject (argument) ball
The girl is throwing the ball to the boy.

Complements involving places or things come before the verb.
Jùuts pinçi yutaalu náaili.
with.INSInstrumental (case)
'with', 'using'
knife cook-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense) clan_mother
The clan mother is preparing food with a knife

[top]Imperatives

To form an imperative, use a present-tense verb preceded by a marker inflected for number: íidi for singular, and shíid for dual or plural.

In formal speech, the verb is fully inflected for subject and object, and the subject pronoun is also required. Object pronouns are still optional, and likely to be dropped.
Íidi cáapcuujuu çadi!
IMPImperative (mood)
command
.SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
leave-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PRProper
marks a noun as referring to a unique entity
you
Go away!

In casual speech, either the verb suffixes or the pronoun may be dropped. Dialects in different clans prefer one over the other, but both forms would be understood anywhere.
Íidi cáapcuu çadi! Íidi cáapcuujuu!

The hortative is formed in the same way, only using the first-person plural conjugation for the verb, rather than second-person.
Shíid nutish wacushi!
IMPImperative (mood)
command
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
go-12DFirst person inclusive dual (person)
1 speaker, 1 listener
.PRSPresent tense (tense) we.DUDual (number)
two

Let's go!

[top]Polar questions

Polar questions (also known as yes/no questions) are formed by adding two particles to an otherwise normal declarative statement: Tsui at the start of the sentence, and qa at the end. As for intonation, the Tsui is somewhat raised, the rest of the sentence returns to default pitch for the sentence, and the pitch rises again for the final qa.

Tsui tsàanjuu qa?
QInterrogative
question
play-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PRSPresent tense (tense) QInterrogative
question

Are you playing?

To respond to the question, you can either repeat the verb in its negative or positive form, or use the words bi (yes) or lu (no), or combine the two with a pause in between, as is often done in English.

Lu, úún tsàanwu.
no NEGNegative (polarity)
not
play-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense)
No, I'm not playing.

By default, the declarative sentence nested in the question particles is a positive statement, but you can also use Tsui... qa around a negative statement. In this case, there are different response words: either ìidz, when you agree with the negative assertion, or shúuz, when you disagree with it.

Tsui upaaljuuadtu dzaal ñàamu qa?
QInterrogative
question
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-like-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
OBJObject (argument) cat QInterrogative
question

Do you not like cats?

Shúuz! la Ìidz.
No, I do (like them)! or No, I don't.

[top]Non-polar questions

Other types of questions also use the question particle qa, by placing it in the location of the sentence that corresponds to whatever is being asked about. This can take many different forms, depending on what kind of question it is. The intonation of the sentence follows the regular pattern for a statement, but rises sharply in pitch on the last syllable (or the last word in a longer utterance or for stronger emphasis, as when a question is asked in astonished disbelief).

Qa as a subject or object
Qa can completely replace a noun to act as a subject or object in a sentence. In this case, the suffix on the verb that corresponds will be for the third person, though it may be singular or plural, animate or inanimate, depending on what kind of answer is expected. (This is similar to the difference between asking Who and What in English.)

Dzaqshuja qa anpi çááj?
hit-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) QInterrogative
question
this.OBJObject (argument) girl
Who hit this girl?

Qa as a verbal suffix
Alternatively, the qa can be added directly to the verb as a subject or object suffix. Sometimes this option is chosen instead of replacing a noun if the speaker doesn't know what form of the suffix would apply, and other times it is simply a stylistic choice. It is especially common when pronouns have been dropped, leaving no other explicit noun in the sentence.

Dzaqaja anpi çááj?
hit-QInterrogative
question
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) this.OBJObject (argument) girl
Who or what hit this girl?

Tadziq imazmaaqa?
there meet-2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
-QInterrogative
question

Who will you meet there?

Qa as a verb
Qa can also act as a verb stem. If the question is about what happened and the verb is the unknown, then the suffixes are applied as normal and the rest of the sentence is formed as with any regular verb.

Qaçiqiija qaplum dzaal shaan?
QInterrogative
question
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PDISDistant past (tense)
events which occurred a long time ago
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) turtle OBJObject (argument) him.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving

What did the turtle do to him?

Qa is also used as a verb and paired with subject determiners to form identification types of questions. The suffix is in one of the third person forms and matches the expected type of response (in the same way as when qa is being used as a subject or object).

Qatan sinlu? Qaci çalish?
QInterrogative
question
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.PRSPresent tense (tense) that.DISTDistal (proximity)
far from speaker (and addressee)
.SUBSubject (argument). QInterrogative
question
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense) those.MEDMedial (proximity)
not too far from speaker; close to addressee
.SUBSubject (argument)
What is that? Who are they?

Qa as an adverb
When being used as an adverb, qa usually combines with a preposition. The exact meaning of the question particle then varies widely depending on the meaning of the preposition and its position in the sentence.

Ta qa ñuzuuzu?
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
QInterrogative
question
dance-2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently

Where did you dance?

Çatsishupu shííçi çi qa anpi júumin?
create-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.OBJObject (argument) clan_father for QInterrogative
question
this.OBJObject (argument) toy
For whom did the clan father make this toy?

Most of the time, the question particle simply follows the preposition, but in certain cases they have combined to fixed forms. These are:

  • çuqa: When/at what time?
    Bunjadi çuqa babaazwa?
    arrive-3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    çuqa gift
    When will the gifts arrive?
  • sishaqa: Why/for what purpose?
    Sishaqa acaaçipu anpi dziq?
    why enter-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PNEANear past (tense)
    past events that occurred recently
    -3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .INANInanimate (gender/class)
    inanimate, sessile
    .OBJObject (argument) this.OBJObject (argument) place
    Why did you come here?
  • mutsqa: To where/with what destination/until when?
    Mutsqa nutcami çíí?
    until_where go-1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    .FNEANear future (tense)
    something that will happen in not much time
    today
    How far will we get today?
  • zanqa: From where/since when?
    Zanqa ñamaçi?
    since_when mother-2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .PDISDistant past (tense)
    events which occurred a long time ago

    How long have you been a mother?


Qa combined with bij
The word bij normally means to be correct or accurate, but it can also surround a noun phrase together with the qa particle to ask something the equivalent of the word 'which' in English.

Patsyimlupu dzaal bij tataani qa?
eat-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.OBJObject (argument) OBJObject (argument) which food QInterrogative
question

Which food is she eating?

[top]Conjunctions

Tuum: combines clauses into a single sentence.

Tsúúwu tuum bazwiqjuu.
run-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense) and swim-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PRSPresent tense (tense)
I run and you swim.

Li would also be translated as "and" but is used to join two elements into a single phrase, such as combining nouns into a noun phrase.

Tsàanci çááj li shu.
play-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense) girl and boy
The girl and boy are playing.

La is used in the same contexts as li, but instead of joining the elements it presents them as alternatives, as the English word "or".

Sàatadi çíí shaaj la itan.
fall-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.INANInanimate (gender/class)
inanimate, sessile
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
today rain or snow
Today it will rain or snow.

When la is being used in questions, the verbal suffix corresponding to that noun phrase can be either singular (if one of the two options is meant to be selected) or plural. If plural, it can be combined with the Tsui...qa construction if it is an inclusive polar question, expecting a response of yes or no to indicate whether either one of the options is true. If it instead uses the bij...qa construction, then the question is exclusive and is asking the listener to choose between sets of plural nouns. Since nouns are not marked for plurality, these types of questions can be confusing to the ear, so it's possible to add numbers, adjectives, or additional particles to make the expected response more obvious.

Pàaljuuja bij ñàamu la wáantacaa qa?
like-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) which cat or dog QInterrogative
question

Do you like the cat or the dog? (Expects an answer of either cat or dog, the preferred animal.)

Tsui pàaljuuadtu ñàamu la wáantacaa qa?
QInterrogative
question
like-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) cat or dog QInterrogative
question

Do you like the cat or the dog? (Expects a yes/no response, yes if you like either one.)

Pàaljuuadtu bij ñàamu la wáantacaa qa?
like-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) which cat or dog QInterrogative
question

Do you like cats or dogs? (Expects an answer of either cats or dogs.)

-ali is a special suffix used to join two verbs that are happening simultaneously or in a connected way. It attaches to the stem of the first verb in the pair and the second is conjugated as normal. In order to use -ali, the first verb of the pair must be intransitive or have become intransitive by the use of the passive.

Zúutsilali patsyimnaqa iuañili.
sit-while eat-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.FNEANear future (tense)
something that will happen in not much time
teacher
The teacher will sit down and eat.

Up comes between two contrasting clauses.

Pàalwuja up úún inaabluwa.
like-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) but NEGNegative (polarity)
not
know_of-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PRSPresent tense (tense)-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.OBJObject (argument)
I like her but she doesn't know me.

Asii means and then, next, or after that. It often comes at the start of a sentence when describing events that happened in order, but can also be used to join two clauses.

Atiqluja shìizu dzaal tsicits, asii patsyimluja.
see-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument) fox OBJObject (argument) squirrel and_then eat-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.ANAnimate (gender/class)
alive, moving
.OBJObject (argument)
The fox saw the squirrel, and then it ate it.

Juç and zíi are both conjunctions used to join clauses in causal relationships. Zíi attaches to the clause which is the cause of something else, and juç attaches to the clause which is a consequence. Either word can come at the beginning or end of its clause, but there is always a pause between the clauses. If the sentence is very long or convoluted, both conjunctions may be stated, but in a simple cause-effect statement, a speaker would choose only one of the two.

Zíi úún patsyimcij, qáabuwu.
because NEGNegative (polarity)
not
eat-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
, be_hungry-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense)
Úún patsyimcij zíi, qáabuwu.
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
eat-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
because, be_hungry-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense)
Because I did not eat, I am hungry.

Úún patsyimcij, juç qáabuwu.
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
eat-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
, so be_hungry-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense)
Úún patsyimcij, qáabuwu juç.
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
eat-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PNEANear past (tense)
past events that occurred recently
, be_hungry-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.PRSPresent tense (tense) so
I did not eat, so I am hungry.

[top]Still to add

* Copula-like constructions

(Continued in Complex sentences in Cuuyamu)
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