cws
Greetings Guest
home > library > journal > view_article
« Back to Articles » Journal
Deinau nouns
0▲ 0 ▼ 0
This public article was written by xroooox, and last updated on 14 Dec 2019, 20:46.

[comments] Menu 1. Definiteness and word class 2. Case and tones 3. Number and case 4. Honorifics 5. Locative nouns 6. Inflection examples Deinau nouns are inflected for nine noun classes, four cases, three numbers and definiteness. Case and noun class are represented by a fusioned prefix, and noun case and number are marked with suffixes. Noun tone is algo determined by those two categories.

[top]Definiteness and word class

Definiteness is marked with a series of prefixes that also code noun class. Noun class prefixes come from articles that were former noun classifiers. Indefinites are the marked case, and use a reduced set of prefixes (which means some classes share prefix). The vowel of these prefixes has the same backness and rounding of the vowel of the noun root, and are high if the following vowel is high or mid and low if it's low. Some nouns are formed with the same root but different class or subclass. Homophone roots might also be diferentiated with their class prefix.

Long and round classes have two different prefixes, the difference between them being the aspiration of the plosive involved. A noun belonging to one of those classes can take any of both prefixes. Some nouns have a different meaning when they use one of the pair of prefixes.



xDEFINDEF
HumanV-V-
AnimalsV-sV-
Plant/foodṇV-
Liquid/massŋV-
force/flatmV-mV-
Solid roundbV-bV-
Hollow roundpV-pV-
Vertical longṭV-ṭV-
LongḍV-ḍV-
AperturedV-dV-
Edge/pointtV-


Human
Human class is used for human referents.

Long
Long class is split in two according to the position of the object referred: horizontal and vertical. Long class is also used for time reference and is the class used for time nominalizations (when X), horizontal for states and vertical for ongoing processes.

[top]Case and tones

The case of the noun is marked by changing the stress position and asigning a tone. There are two classes, animate and inanimate, that include all the others and have different tone behavior. Case is also partially marked by the nomber suffixes.



AbsErgAccObl
animate2-H1-H2-HL1-H
inanimate2-H1-H1-HL


[top]Number and case

Number is marked by a series of suffixes. There are two sets of suffixes that mark number and case, one is used if the noun is definite and other one for indefinites.
Not all nouns need a numbrer specification. Mass nouns inflected as if they were plural. The singular form is used then when individualization, and paucal for kinds of items.



DEFINDEF
ABSERGACUABSERGACU
SINGVpVg
PAUCVspasVpaaVziVV
PLVmpadVd


[top]Honorifics

There is a prefix nl- that is used for higher hierarchy people, and a prefix k- for lower. It is only used with human class.

[top]Locative nouns

There is a prefix l- that comes after the class prefix used with nouns as a general locative. Static locatives receive absolutive tone, illatives (to) accusative tone and ablatives (from) ergative. They can be used with deictic clitics and prepositionals to further specify the locative. All locative nouns use absolutive suffixes for number if they are indefinite, and oblique if they are definite.

Saŋmasam platpan kaanistaa.
The bats are flying in the cave

Saŋmasam platpanag kaanistaa.
The bats are flying in a cave

Saŋmasam plátpan kaanistaa.
The bats are flying from the cave

Saŋmasam platpàn kaanistaa.
The bats are flying to the cave

[top]Inflection examples


·s-aṣot- dog




DEFINDEF
ABSERG/OBLACUOBLABSERGACUOBL
SING·ṣasóṭ·ṣástup·ṣasòtup·ṣástup·ṣasótug·ṣástug·ṣasòtu·ṣástu
PAUC·ṣasótus·ṣásotpas·ṣasòtpaa·ṣásotpaa·ṣasótussu·ṣástussu·ṣasòtuu·ṣástuu
PL·ṣasótum·ṣásotpad·ṣasótuŋ·ṣástud


ṭtlu: bag




DEFINDEF
ABSERGACUABSERGACU
SINGbuṭtlubùṭtlupbúṭtlupbuṭtlugbùṭtlugbúṭtluu
PAUCbuṭtlusbùṭtlupasbúṭtlupaabuṭtlussubùṭtlussubúṭtluu
PLbuṭtlumbùṭtlupadbúṭtlupaabuṭtluŋbùṭtludbúṭtluu


li- woman



DEFINDEF
ABSERGACUOBLABSERGACUOBL
SINGalíálipalìpálipalígáligalìálii
PAUCalísálpasalìpaaálpaaalíksiáliksi
PLalímálpadalíŋálid



·ndul- mango



DEFINDEF
ABSERGACUABSERGACU
SING·ṇlundúl·ṇlùndlup·ṇlúndlup·ṇlundúlug·ṇlùndlug·ṇlúndlu
PAUC·ṇlundúlus·ṇlùndulpas·ṇlúndulpaa·ṇlundúlussi·ṇlùndlussi·ṇlúndluu
PL·ṇlundúlum·ṇlùndulpad·ṇlúndulpaa·ṇlundúluŋ·ṇlùndlud·ṇlúndluu


▼ Sentence examples


Comments (0)
privacy | FAQs | rules | statistics | graphs | donate | api (indev)
Viewing CWS in: English | Time now is 04-Dec-20 17:16 | Δt: 149.554ms