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Vambus verb morphology
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The how-to's for verbs
This public article was written by DzêtaRedfang, and last updated on 2 Jan 2018, 21:10.

[comments] Menu 1. Verb Class 2. Negativity 3. Habituality 4. Passive 5. Reverse/Opposite 6. Tense-Aspect-Mood
!Warning!
This article has been marked as out of date. There's a possibility that some information is incorrect.

Whew, verb time people. This took forever to be able to write, so I hope you all enjoy as we embark on our treacherously wondrous journey through the land of VERBS...cue the sparkles.

Verbs work in a mainly fusional manner with them taking a TAM suffix, and up to 2 prefixes, with an optional preclitic and enclitic existing. The form for verbs is thus as follows:

(reverse) negative-habituality-root-TAM (passive)


We'll work through each part one by one, starting with the basics: Verb Classes.

[top]Verb Class


In  Atruozan, using the verb class is crucial to understanding a sentence, as many verb roots can be used with a different verb class to give a whole new verb. There are five verb classes: AL, ÈL, IL, OL, and UL. These can be further grouped into two conjugation groups, where Group 1 (AL, ÈL and IL) conjugate the same way with the exception of the inherent vowel*. They all have different uses, defined as follows:

AL: Common/Other verbs (basically anything that doesn't fall into a following category)
ÈL: Creation/Desctruction verbs (pretty straightforward)
IL: Survival verbs (relating to survival)
OL: Intransitive verbs (mainly change of state and motion verbs)¸
UL: Abstract verbs (uses no personal pronoun as to avoid the dummy pronouns)

Many verb roots can be used with a different verb class to create a whole new one (cf. fnâňol "to die", and fnâňèl "to kill).

*- The inherent vowel is the first vowel of the TAM suffix, and it usually changes depending on the verb class. It sometimes also plays a part in the second and third vowels (albeit rarely the latter), and is the verb class' vowel.

Ex:
AL class INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.PDISDistant past (tense)
events which occurred a long time ago
.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
: -atas

IL class INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
.PDISDistant past (tense)
events which occurred a long time ago
.2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
: -itis


[top]Negativity


So, let's go into a little evolution of the language that is necessary to understand Vambus litterature. In the past, verbs never took any prefixes, but instead there were different words for the negative and the habitual (more on the latter later). Eventually practice became to place them directly before the verb and as evolution took it's course, they slowly morphed into an clitic, lost the final consonnant, and finally, became a prefix. The older forms can still be seen in older literature, with the form "zè" existing for around 100 years, before it was decided that it had pretty much become a prefix, as people no longer spoke the inter-word boundary vowel glottal stop, and instead elided the whole preclitic to "z". It can be seen in texte during the 20-30 year timespan before it was decided that it was pretty much a prefix, and was to be written as such in text (this was around 350 years ago, nothing in comparison to the average citizen's lifespan).

Evolution was as follows:
zènoň (verb) > zèn (verb) > zè (verb) > zè-(verb)


The word "zèn" came to mean "no"*, and the negative was affixed. It is always the first prefix if it exists, and can be emphasized through reduplication adjacent to itself (or as a separate word directly before the verb in slightly older litterature). This reduplication has only ever affected the "zè" part of the word, so even in quite dated novels, "zèzènoň" would be used for emhasizing negativity.

The negative prefix "zè-" takes on the form "z-" if followed by a vowel.

*-Before this, all answers to polar questions were answered by restating the verb; however, nowadays the old usage and the "no" are used very interchangeably.

[top]Habituality


As mentioned previously, this evolution also happened with the Habituality, which used to be the word "pénon" and "pènon". A long time ago, the negative forms for these involved placing the prefix "zè-" on them, but this quickly resolved to the creation of two new words "bénon" and "bènon". These evolved alongside the negative, with it coming closer to the verb, and affixing to it long before the negative did. These shortened in much the same way, resulting in the following changes:

pénon/bénon (verb) > pén/bén (verb) > pé/bé (verb) > pé/bé-(verb)

pènon/bènon (verb) > pèn/bèn (verb) > pè/bè (verb) > pè/bè-(verb)


So, what are they for specifically? First off, it would be wise to note that the NEGNegative (polarity)
not
.HABHabitual (aspect)
done often or out of habit
only cancels the habitual, leaving the verb still valid and untouched. Now, lets put these into a little chart, and get explaining:

ConsisitentInconsistent
Positivepé-pè-
Negativebé-bè-


In short, the "consistent" usage marks a habitual action that recurs on a consistent, scheduled basis and is usually accompanied by the specification of the period of time elapsed between each occurence. The inconsistent is just that: a "from time to time" recurrence.

If the letter following the prefix is a vowel, "pé/bé" become "p/b". "pè/bè" becomes "pèn/bèn".

If the verb must be made negative, even if the negative habitual preffix is used (which, once again, only makes the habitual aspect negative), the negative suffix must be used before it.

[top]Passive


The passive voice is marked with the enclitic "do" directly after the verb. That's it. It acts as a redirecter, telling you to percieve the object as a "subject", and the subject as an "object" of sorts (a.k.a. It changes the order in which you interpret the sentence, without ever changing word order).

[top]Reverse/Opposite


This is an interesting feature, so let's get right into it. In Vambus, a lot of verb roots take on two roles, one of them being a reversed form (antonymous form). This is formed through the use of the preclitic "i" that is placed directly before the negative's slot, whether or not the negative is written as a preclitic or as a prefix.

Through this method, the verb "to kill", fnâňèl, becomes "to resuscitate [someone]", i fnâňèl. One can also, through this method, say "to un-birth", i þukèl. It would be good to note, however, that as birthing is viewed as the action of "creating new life", saying this is more accurately defined as "ending new life" (a.k.a. Baby murdering).

One good thing to remember is that the preclitic is usually pronounced as part of the verb, but depending on context, it is also used as an excuse to catch one's breath by putting stress on it and pronouncing it as a separate word.

[top]Tense-Aspect-Mood


Whew, you, the reader, have succesfully made it this far, and sadly, this is where we part for now. The TAM suffixes are numerous and quite complex, so it will recieve it's own article that can be found here.

Bye now!
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