Phonology and Orthography
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A brief overview of the sounds and spelling conventions.
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 3 Feb 2019, 13:29.
Gutiskar has 9 monophthongs. There is no distinction in length any more - the historical long vowels have undergone a process of diphthongisation.
|Short vowels||Final||Medial (primary)||Medial (secondary)|
|⟨a⟩ [a]||⟨á⟩ [aʊ̯]||⟨á⟩ [ʊ̯a]||⟨â⟩ [aʊ̯]|
|⟨e⟩ [e]||⟨é⟩ [ɛɪ̯]||⟨é⟩ [i̯ɛ]||⟨ê⟩ [ɛɪ̯]|
|⟨i⟩ [i]||⟨í⟩ [iɪ̯]||⟨í⟩ [i̯ə]||⟨î⟩ [iɪ̯]|
|⟨o⟩ [o]||⟨ó⟩ [ɔʊ̯]||⟨ó⟩ [ʊ̯ɔ]||⟨ô⟩ [ɔʊ̯]|
|⟨u⟩ [u]||⟨ú⟩ [əɪ̯]||⟨y⟩ [y]||⟨û⟩ [əɪ̯]|
|⟨æ⟩ [æ]||⟨ǽ⟩ [æɪ̯]||⟨ǽ⟩ [i̯æ]||⟨æi⟩* [æɪ̯]|
|⟨ø⟩ [ø]||⟨ǿ⟩ [œɪ̯]||⟨ǿ⟩ [i̯œ]||⟨øi⟩* [œɪ̯]|
|⟨y⟩ [y]||⟨ý⟩ [yɪ̯]||⟨ý⟩ [i̯y]||⟨ŷ⟩ [yɪ̯]|
|⟨è⟩ [ə]||⟨è⟩ [ə]||⟨è⟩ [ə]||⟨è⟩ [ə]|
The short vowels are the default vowel qualities anywhere in a word.
The "final" column refers to the position of the vowels at the end of a word (eg. kaniðé [ˈkaniðɛɪ̯]) and when there is no consonant after the vowel (eg. í [iɪ̯]).
The "primary medial" column refers to the position of the vowel within a word (eg. armán [ˈarmʊ̯an]) or at the beginning of a word when there is at least one other sound following (eg. ástur [ˈʊ̯astur]).
The "secondary medial" column refers to the position of the vowel that used to be word-final but it becomes word-medial when certain endings or suffixes are applied, such the formation of the middle voice (eg. kalló [ˈkatlɔʊ̯] becomes kallôst [ˈkatlɔʊ̯st]). Notice (*) the different spellings of ⟨ǿ⟩ and ⟨ǽ⟩ as ⟨øi⟩ and ⟨æi⟩, respectively.
Gutiskar has 21 recognised consonants.
|Consonant||Variations and notes|
|⟨b⟩ [b]||pronounced as [b̥] when word-final or followed by a voiceless consonant|
|⟨d⟩ [d]||pronounced as [d̥] when word-final or followed by a voiceless consonant|
|⟨ð⟩ [ð]||pronounced as [ð̥] when word-final|
|⟨g⟩ [g]||pronounced as [ɣ] when in inter-vocalic positions, as [ɣ̊] or [ɡ̊] when word-final, and as [ɡ̊] followed by a voiceless consonant|
|⟨gw⟩ [gʷ]||simplified to ⟨g⟩ [g] when followed by consonants or certain diphthongs|
|⟨h⟩ [h]||usually pronounced as [h] but [x] is also acceptable; when in front of a consonant, especially at the end of a word, it turns into [ʰ] (preaspiration); pronounced as [x] when word-final; it becomes ⟨j⟩ [i̯] in certain environments|
|⟨ƕ⟩ [xʷ]||it becomes ⟨hv⟩ [xʋ] or [hʋ] when followed by certain diphthongs|
|⟨kw⟩ [kʷ]||simplified to ⟨k⟩ [k] when followed by consonants or certain diphthongs|
|⟨l⟩ [l]||when spelt ⟨ll⟩ it is pronounced as [tl]|
|⟨n⟩ [n]||pronounced as [ŋ] when followed by a velar or a glottal consonant|
|⟨v⟩ [v]||pronounced as [ʋ] when preceded by a voiceless consonant; usually becomes [u̯] or [ʊ̯] when preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant (especially word-finally)|
|⟨z⟩ [z]||occurs only word-medially|
|⟨þ⟩ [þ]||usually becomes ⟨s⟩ [s] when followed by a voiceless consonant|
a á â b d ð e é ê è f g h ƕ i í î j k l m n o ó ô p r s t u ú û v y ý ŷ z þ æ ǽ ø ǿ
a á â b d ð e é ê è f g h ƕ i í î j k l m n o ó ô p r s t u ú û v y ý ü z þ æ ǽ ø ǿ
d d ð f g gw h ƕ j k l m n p q r s t v z þ
d d ð f g ğ h ƕ j k l m n p q r s t v z þ
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