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Sotobangnalli Dialect
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外離島方言
This public article was written by StrawberryMilk, and last updated on 22 Apr 2020, 19:38.

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Sotobangnalli Dialect (外離島方言, sotopanashima-puangngyang) is a Mikyoan Dialect spoken on the island of Sotobangnalli, which is in Illyomotei County. Sotobangnalli Dialect shares many similarities with other Far Eastern Mikyoan Dialects, such as preservation of the Middle Mikyoan tonal system, merger of voiced and unvoiced plosives, and more conservative grammar than Dialects. Today, Sotobangnalli Dialect is less common than in the past, but it is still used by some older residents of the island. Typically, Sotobangnalli Dialect is associated with the older generation and thus is often perceived as sounding old fashioned or as dated. Because of this, many younger Sotobangnalli residents tend to speak in a dialect more similar to the Standard Mikyoan Dialect or the Illyomotei Dialect, or they will speak a more standard form of Mikyoan with only a small influence of the local dialect.

Unlike many other dialects, Sotobangnalli Dialect (as well as most other Far Eastern Dialects), feature the preservation of Middle Mikyoan phonemes and also have sound changes directly from older forms of Mikyoan. Sotobangnalli features more tones than nearby the Uchibanalli Dialect, however, it has fewer tones than the Yongnagumei Language, which it is more distantly related to.


Features

Vowels

→ Medieval Mikyoan /ə/ (Standard Mikyoan /ʌ/) is realized as [ɔ], ex. 헝장 (恆常, always) /xʌŋd͡ʑäŋ/ [hɔŋ˥t͡ɕäŋ˥˩]
→ Medieval Mikyoan /æ/ (Standard Mikyoan /ɛ/) is preserved as [æ], ex. 배큠 (vaccum) /bɛk̚kjɯm/ [pæk˥c͡çum˥˨]
→ /ɯ/ is realized as /u/, ex. 주 (州, state) /d͡ʑɯ/ [t͡ɕu:˩]
→ Medieval Mikyoan /ø/, which has been merged with /i/ in Standard Mikyoan, is realized as [e], as in Yongnagumei, ex. 징부 (政府, government) /d͡ʑiŋbɯ/ [t͡ɕe:ŋ˩pu:˩]
→ Standard Mikyoan /ɯj/ (from Medieval Mikyoan /oi/) is realized as [ɨ], ex. 즤겍 (追擊, chase) /d͡ʑɯjgek̚/ [t͡ɕɨ:˩ke:ʔ˩]
→ /o/ and /ʌ/ [ɔ] are realized as [äw] in syllables with a falling tone, ex. 과혹 (科學, science) /gwäxo̞k̚/ [wä:˩hä:wʔ˥˩]

Consonants

→ /w~u̯/ is realized as [ʷ] or not realized at all after consonants, ex. 뒤 (槌, hammer) /du̯i/ [t(ʷ)i:˩]
→ /s/ is realized as [s̺], however, /ɕ/ is still realized as such, ex. 시서주 (scissors) /ɕisʌd͡ʑɯ/ [ɕi˥s̺ɔ˥˩t͡ɕu˩]
→ Voiced and unvoiced pairs are merged as unvoiced, the only thing distinguishing previously voiced and unvoiced pairs are tones
⮡ /p/ and /b/ are merged as [p], ex. 빙 (冰, water) /biŋ/ and 핑 (ping) /piŋ/ are both merged as [piŋ]
⮡ /t/ and /d/ are merged as [t], ex. 당 (黨, political party) /däŋ/ and 탕 (趟, classifier for trips/journeys) /täŋ/ are both merged as [täŋ]
⮡ /t͡ɕ/ and /d͡ʑ/ are merged as [t͡ɕ], ex. 자 ("right", "indeed") /d͡ʑä/ and 차 (茶, tea) /t͡ɕä/ are both merged as [t͡ɕä]
→ /x/ is preserved as [h], ex. 훠도 (胡桃, walnut), /xu̯o̞do̞/ [(h)wo˥tä:w˥˩]
→ [h] is realized as [ç] before /i/ and /j/, ex: 형 (土, earth), /xjʌŋ/ [çɔŋ͡m˥]
→ Mikyoan /g/ corresponds to [w] in onsets and is omitted intervocalically and in coda positions, ex: 걱싣 (確實, certainty), /gʌk̚ɕit̚/ [wɔ:ʔ˩ɕil˩˥]
→ /k/ is realized by most speakers as [ʔ], especially in coda positions, ex: 케익 (cake) /ke̞i̯k̚/ [ʔejiʔ˨]
→ Coda /t̚/ is realized as [l], ex. 꿛, (月, moon/month), /ŋu̯o̞t̚/ [ŋ(ʷ)ol˧]
→ /ɹ~ɾ/ is realized as [z] by many speakers, ex. 린레이혹 (倫理學, ethics) /ɹinne̞i̯xo̞k̚/ [zin˧zei˧hä:wʔ˥˩]


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tones dip after formerly voiced plosives//˩ becomes long instead
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