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This public article was written by total pleb on 28 Apr 2018, 11:02.

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2. Animacy
Menu 1. Introduction 2. Intentional Actions 3. Unintentional Actions
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[top]Introduction

Formanian has a form of Fluid-S alignment, in which the subject of an intransitive verb can be inflected like the agent or the patient of a transitive verb. In Formanian the case a subject takes depends on the volition of an action, i.e. whether the action was intentional or not. Formanian takes this concept a step further by also allowing the agent of a transitive verb to be inflected as either an agent or a patient depending on volition.

[top]Intentional Actions

Intentional actions in the context of Formanian are considered to be actions that are done willingly, or are within the control of the subject/agent. The subject/agent of the verb is inflected in the nominative case. This is the default degree of volition for transitive verbs, and pronoun dropping is common here.

Examples:
(Val) tolaro - 'I slid'
(Ro) minken - 'You sin (knowingly and willingly)'
(Val) gyalaro nyözd büzärt - 'I gave him/her the money (a willful transaction)'
(Büz) kuźat - '[S]he works (willingly)'

[top]Unintentional Actions

Unintentional actions are considered to be actions that are done without the subject/agent's intention. They can include accidental actions, as well as subconscious actions and bodily processes. In some contexts marking a transitive verb as unintentional can imply that the subject/agent was forced to do it. The subject/agent of the verb is inflected in the accusative case. Pronoun dropping is not allowed in these contexts.

Examples:
Vald tolaro - 'I slipped'
Rod minken - 'You sin (without knowledge or despite resisting, or after being forced/driven to)'
Vald gyalaro nyözd büzärt - 'I gave him/her the money (perhaps it was a robbery or a ransom payment)'
Büzd kuźat - '[S]he works (uwillingly, may be slave labour or an exaggeration, or have ideological connotations)'
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