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1 Först lëkśon : Alfbayt & numeri.
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European, phonology, alphabet and numbers.
This public article was written by Velen Taegnarip, and last updated on 16 Jul 2019, 14:34.

[comments] Menu 1. Phonology 2. Alphabet 3. Numbers 4. Resume 5. Inspirations 6. The next lesson
European

...is an auxiliaire language based on many natural languages, very known, or less, for exemple :

Indo-European → Germanic languages Old Francic, Old Norse, Swedish, Nynorsk, Bokmål, Danish, Icelandic, Anglo-Saxon, Middle English, Dutch, Faroese, West Flemish, Afrikaans, Saterland Frisian, Yiddish, Wymysorys...
→ Latin languages Latin, Old French, Old Spanish, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Old Occitan, Occitan, Picard, Walloon, Corsican, Romansh, Celtiberian...
→ Slavic languages Old Slavic, Serbian, Slovenian, Polish, Russian, Czech...
→ Baltic languages Latvian, Lithuanian.
Finno-Ugric → Finnic languages Finnish, Estonian, Vepse, Võro, Livonian, Northern Sami...
→ Ugric languages Magyar(Hungarian).
... And some other languages : Ancient-Greek, Persian, Hebrew, Kikuyu, or Tahitian...

However, the objective is, before all, to be understood by peoples speaking an European language (Basque is excluded).


[top]Phonology

The inventory size of European is large, but there exist some free variants and allophones as following :

Free variants
Tipic variantsStandards
/c/ ; /q//k/
/ɢ//g/
/ɸ//f/
/ʋ/ ; /β//v/
/ɕ//ʃ/
/ʑ//ʒ/
/t͡ɕ//t͡ʃ/
/ʟ/ ; /ɫ//l/

Allophones
/ɔ//o/


For more details :  European


[top]Alphabet

European uses the latin alphabet extend and owns 33 letters ; 10 vowels, 2 semi-vowels, and 21 consonants.
The names of alphabet letters of European come from the Proto-Sinaitic script (Proto-Canaanite), Phoenician, and Hebrew, but haven't got meanings in European.


Vowels
MajusculesMinusculesIPANamesExemples
Aa/a/AlpuRataSpanish
Ää/æ/Älef1CatEnglish
Ee/e/Hew2MesaPortuguese
Ëë/ɛ/3BedDutch
Ii/i/Iadu4TipoSpanish
Oo/o/Oynu5TodoSpanish
Öö/ø/Öyin6YöFinnish
Uu/u/Uāv7CuraSpanish
Yy/y/Yāw8YksiFinnish
Åå/ɔ/Hållu9VolDutch


Älef1 : Come from the Hebrew "Ālef", derived of the Proto-Sinaitic script "Alpu"(Beef).
Hew2 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Haw"(Window).
3 : Come from the Phoenician "Hē", derived of the Proto-Sinaitic script "Haw"(Window).
Iadu4 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Yadu"(Arm).
Oynu5 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "ʿaynu"(Eye).
Öyin6 : Come from the Phoenician "ʿayin", derived of the Proto-Sinaitic script "ʿaynu"(Eye).
Uāv7 : Come from the Hebrew "Vāv", derived of the Proto-Sinaitic script "Wāwu"(Hook).
Yāw8 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Wāwu"(Hook).
Hållu9 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Hallu"(Jubilation).



All those specific modifications has been made to match the consistance sought by European and can be explain linguistically by lenition or other processes.


Consonants and Semi-Consonants
MajusculesMinusculesIPANamesExemples
Bb/b/BaytuAbackEnglish
Cc/t͡s/Cīmel1TeaEnglish
Ćć/t͡ʃ/, [t͡ɕ]Ćadu2LeachEnglish
Dd/d/DaltuDayEnglish
Ff/f/, [ɸ]Fāwu3FillEnglish
Gg/g/, [ɢ]GamluGaggleEnglish
Hh/h/HaytuHighEnglish
Jj/j/Jōd4YouEnglish
Kk/k/KapuKissEnglish
Ll/l/, [ʟ]LamduLoveEnglish
Mm/n/MayimHimEnglish
Nn/k/NunuMonthEnglish
Ññ/ɲ/Ñahśu5EnseñarSpanish
Pp/p/PuPackEnglish
Rr/r/RasuPerroSpanish
Ss/s/Sinnu6SandEnglish
Śś/ʃ/, [ɕ]ŚinSheepEnglish
Tt/t/TawuTwoEnglish
Vv/v/, [β], [ʋ]VāvValvEnglish
Ww/w/WāwuWeepEnglish
Xx/ks/SamkuFluxusLatin
Zz/z/ZaynuZooEnglish
Źź/ʒ/, [ʑ]Źayin7VisionEnglish


Cīmel1 : Come from the Phoenician "Gīmel", derived of the Proto-Sinaitic script "Gamlu"(Stick).
Ćadu2 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Ṣadu"(Plant).
Fāwu3 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Wāwu"(Hook).
Jōd4 : Come from the Phoenician "Yōd", derived of the Proto-Sinaitic script "Yadu"(Arm).
Ñahśu5 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Naḥšu"(Snake).
Sinnu6 : Come from the Proto-Sinaitic script "Šinnu"(Tooth).
Źayin7 : Come from the Phoenician "Zayin", derived of the Proto-Sinaitic script "Zaynu"(Weapon).

All those specific modifications has been made to match the consistance sought by European and can be explain linguistically by lenition or other processes.


Alphabetic order of European letters
Standard orderAaÄäBbCcĆćDdEeËëFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMmNnÑñOoÖöPpRrSsŚśTtUuVvWwXxYyZzŹźÅå

There is not official order, but this order stays standard, thereby commonly use.


[top]Numbers

European numeral system uses the base 10.
In European there are two manners to count 0, 10, 14, 400, 100 and 4000, respectively :
→ "Noll" and "Sero",
→ "Deksa" and "Kymme",
→ "Kwetteista" and "Förjateista",
→ "Kwetsuta" and "Förja suta".
→ "Tusant" and "Mil"
→ "Kwet mil" and "Förtusant".

In black, basic forms.
In blue, regular forms.
In red, irregular forms.
In green, affix of the ordinal forms to add compared to the cardinal forms.


Numeral cardinal adjectives
Noll010DeksaSero00000Noll/SeroNoll/Sero0000100ÖnkNSDT1010100Önk
Önk111ElfKymme10100SutaTusant/Mil1000101Deksa/KymmeNSDT101110-1Deksesim
Dwå212DwålfDwånzek20200Dwå sutaDwå tusant(/mil)2000102SutaDwiljon101210-2Sutesim
Toru313Toruteist(a)Torukymment(a)30300Toru sutaToru tusant(/mil)3000103Tusant/MilNSDT101310-3Milesim
Kwetförja414Kwetteista/FörjateistaKwetförtymmenta40400Kwetsuta/Förja sutaKwet mil/Förtusant4000104NSDTNSDT101410-4NSDT
Vīz515Vīzteist(a)Vīzkymment(a)50500s sutaVīz tusant(/mil)5000105NSDTDwiljard101510-5NSDT
Sūes616Sūesteist(a)Sūeskymment(a)60600Sūes sutaSūes tusant(/mil)6000106MiljonNSDT101610-6Miljonesim
Seitse717Seitseteist(a)Seitsekymment(a)70700Seitse sutaSeitse tusant(/mil)7000107NSDTNSDT101710-7NSDT
Okto818Oktoteist(a)Oktokymment(a)80800Okto sutaOkto tusant(/mil)8000108NSDTToriljon101810-8NSDT
Nov919Novteist(a)Novkymment(a)90900Nov sutaNov tusant(/mil)9000109MiljardNSDT101910-9Miljardesim


Numeral ordinal adjectives
10thKymnes100Primer/FörstNSDT1010
Primer/Först1st11thElftKymnes10th100thSudasTuhannes/Milea1000th101KymnesNSDT1011
Segond2nd12thDwålftDwånzekt20th200thDwassudasDwas tuhannes(/milea)2000th102SudasDwiljonelea1012
Toras3rd13thTorasteist(a)Toraskymnes30th300thTorassudasToras tuhannes(/milea)3000th103Tuhannes/MileaNSDT1013
Kwetförjas4th14thFörjasteistKwetförta(s)mnes40th400thKwetsudas/FörjassudasKwet milea/Förtuhannes4000th104NSDTNSDT1014
Vīzas5th15thVīzasteist(a)Vīzaskymnes50th500thVīzassudasVīzas tuhannes(/milea)5000th105NSDTDwiljardelea1015
Sūesas6th16thSūesasteist(a)Sūesaskymnes60th600thSūesassudasSūesas tuhannes(/milea)6000th106MiljoneleaNSDT1016
Seitsas7th17thSeitsasteist(a)Seitsaskymnes70th700thSeitsassudasSeitsas tuhannes(/milea)7000th107NSDTNSDT1017
Oktas8th18thOktasteist(a)Oktaskymnes80th800thOktassudasOktas tuhannes(/milea)8000th108NSDTToriljonelea1018
Novas9th19thNovasteist(a)Novaskymnes90th900thNovassudasNovas tuhannes(/milea)9000th109MiljardeleaNSDT1019

There is a real different between "Primer" and "Först" :
"Primer" is a term that defined a preconceived list of which we know in advance its outcome.
"Först" is a term used to mark the fact that we do not know the exact number of entities in the list at the time of its conception.

Furthermore, it may be that we have planned a list of 9 lessons, in this case, we will say "Primer", however, in case we have the idea to finally introduce a 10th, which was not planned,
it is possible to indicate it also by changing infix "as" by "äs". But, it's impossible for "Segond", "Dwålft", "Dwånzekt", and all derived of "Four" (itself excluded of this exception ; Kwetförjäs).
Known listKymnesSudasTuhannesMileaMiljoneleaMiljardeleaEt cætera
Unknown listKymnäsSudäsTuhannäsMileäMiljoneleäMiljardeleäEt cæterä
... And can be combined or not, for exemple : "Sudäs toräs" or "Sudäs toras" or even "Sudas toräs", but it does not matter.
Anyway, this formulation is mostly written.

NSDT : Not specific defined term (but can be structured by other terms, exemple : 105 = Suta tusant or 100 000th = Sudas tuhannes)


[top]Resume

▼ Click here to toggle hidden content below
There are lot of phonemes but you can use the phonemes that your language knows, cause European also includes many phonemes varying freely.
There are many letters but all the letters almost always correspond to the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Knowing all the names of the alphabet letters is complex, but, as long as there is no ambiguity, you can use the first syllabe, only !
The count base is 10 and there are irregular form, particularly on derived of 1, 2 and 4.
There are two manners to use the ordinal numbers, the first is like other languages but the second manner allows to mark one's thoughts when composing a list :
the chapter numbers of a novel, the lesson numbers, or the episode numbers of a series,
when we don't know the exact number of entities that make up the list
.


[top]Inspirations

Inspired by kayke and his lesson #1 on the  Brillian.
Inspired by r2conlanger and his lesson #1 on the  Jodum.
Inspired by mousefire55 and his lesson #1 on the  Yaharan.
Inspired by Castillerian and his lesson #1 on the  Adenish.

Inspired by Egil and his lesson on the numbers of the  Ukamayan.
Inspired by Vulcanman and his lesson on the numbers of the  Shikathi.

Inspired by phi2dao and his lesson on the grammar of the  Nuim.


[top]The next lesson

2 Segond lëkśon : Pronomi & vërbi åv sö primer grup.
The next lesson will focus on the pronouns and the verbs.


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