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Adjectives in Uyendur
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This public article was written by clawgrip, and last updated on 21 Oct 2017, 13:26.

[comments] Menu 1. Morphology 2. Standard Adjectives 3. Gender 4. Number 5. Animacy 6. Participle Adjectives 7. Syntax Adjectives in Uyendur belong to one of two broad types: standard adjectives and participle adjectives. Standard adjectives agree with their head nouns in gender, number and animacy, while participle adjectives, deriving from verbal infinitives, do not agree with their head nouns in any way.

Orthographically, no space is added between adjectives and their head nouns, e.g. isugumipim itugum ipim "a distant town".

[top]Morphology

[top]Standard Adjectives

Standard adjectives, just as nouns and verbs, are divided into five classes based on the specific phonetics of the root.

[top]Gender

Masculine adjectives have no particular ending, while feminine adjectives are marked useing the ending -m typical also of feminine nouns and verbs.

Example:
MasculineFeminine
Class I"enjoyable"itakbuetitagbwetitakbuetumitagbwetum
Class II"neat"GaraġaraGaramġaram
Class III"thick"hutungutuhutumngutum
Class IV"beautiful"manwkimanĕkimanwkimmanĕkim
Class V"paternal"DundaiaḍundayaDundaiamḍundayam


[top]Number

Number is marked by means of vowel alteration, in like fashion to verbs and nouns. Typically, the plural vowel is o, but this varies somewhat based on the class of adjectives.

SingularPlural
MasculineFeminineMasculineFeminine
Class I"enjoyable"itakbuetitagbwetitakbuetumitagbwetumitakbuetoitagbwetoitakbuetomitagbwetom
Class II"neat"GaraġaraGaramġaramGaroġaroGaromġarom
Class III"thick"hutungutuhutumngutumhutoxngutŏhutoxmngutŏm
Class IV"beautiful"manwkimanĕkimanwkimmanĕkimmanwkiomanĕkyomanwkiommanĕkyom
Class V"paternal"DundaiaḍundayaDundaiamḍundayamDundaiakoḍundayakoDundaiakomḍundayakom


[top]Animacy

Uyendur is an outlier in the Wibbayuric-Ngoraic languages in that adjectives inflect for the animacy of their head nouns, a feature that first appeared in some variations of Proto-Wibbayuric, but was dropped entirely in  Xakulese, while in  Tuchuqfa, the animacy suffix was reaanalyzed as a derivational morpheme. In Uyendur it remains as an animacy agreement suffix.

The suffix -lu is used to mark animacy. It inflects regularly and is simply appended to all adjective classes without change, except for class I, which may undergo consonant assimilation as outlined by the chart which may be found here.

MasculineFeminine
Singular lu-lulum-lum
Plural lo-lolom-lom


The following table illustrates the inanimate and animate forms of the masculine singular:
InanimateAnimate
Class I"enjoyable"itakbuetitagbwetitakbuetluitagbwellu
Class II"neat"GaraġaraGaraluġaralu
Class III"thick"hutungutuhutulungutulu
Class IV"beautiful"manwkimanĕkimanwkilumanĕkilu
Class V"paternal"DundaiaḍundayaDundaialuḍundayalu


[top]Participle Adjectives

Participle adjectives, as their name suggest, derive from non-finite verb forms. These are linked to the noun with the particle ii ĭ. Consequently, participle adjectives do not agree with their head nouns in any way.

They may be formed from by conjugating any verb into its active or passive participle forms, which is a variant of the infinitive:

1st personactive infinitivepassive infinitiveactive participle adjectivepassive participle adjective
ga-xe
gaxe
"I am breaking (something)"
ga-xa-xu
gaxaxu
"to break"
ga-xatu
gaxatu
"to be broken"
iiga-xa-xum
ĭ gaxaxum
"who/which breaks (something)"
iiga-xatum
ĭ gaxatum
"(who/which is) broken"
taxi
tăi
"I am doing (it)"
taxxu
tăxu
"to do"
taxtu
tătu
"to be done"
iitaxxum
ĭ tăxum
"who/which does (it)"
iitaxtum
ĭ tătum
"(which is) done
mwrigmix
mĕrimmĭ
"I am cleaning (this place) up"
mwrigmixu
mĕrimmixu
"to clean (a place) up"
mwrigmitu
mĕrimmitu
"to be cleaned up"
iimwrigmixum
ĭ mĕrimmixum
"who/which cleans (a place) up"
iimwrigmitum
ĭ mĕrigmitum
"(which is) cleaned up


[top]Syntax

Adjectives of both types immediately follow the noun they modify:

BamixtgaDi
ḅamĭt gaḍi
root-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
.DEFDefinite
"the"
red.(MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
)
"the red root"

tohomsusaklom
tongom tutallom
bird-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
big-FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
-ANIMUnknown code.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

"big birds"

ukumuniiga-xatum
ukumun ĭ gaxatum
wall-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.MASCMasculine (gender)
masculine or male
.LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
ATTRUnknown code break-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.PRTPreterite (tense)
denotes a past action, often perfective

"(by) a broken wall" (LOC)

When adjectives of more than one type modify a single noun simultaneously, standard adjectives come before participle adjectives:

suiasumhugimiia-ximitummuskrux
tuyatum ngugim ĭ aximitum mut kruw
book-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
.NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
old-SGSingular (number)
one countable entity
.FEMFeminine (gender)
feminine or female
ATTRUnknown code burn-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
still
"an old book which has not yet been burned"
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