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South Osveraali: grammatical changes
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This public article was written by [Deactivated User] on 14 Mar 2019, 07:55. Editing of this article is shared with Osveraalists.

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<h1>Grammatical changes</h1>


<h2>Ablaut</h2>


<p>
Ablaut occurs in the nominal declension and takes the form of raising or diphthongisation.
</p>

Short vowels
Long vowels
a
e
a:

ɐ
ə
ɐ:

ɑ
ɤ
ɑ:

ɒ
o
ɒ:

æ
i


ɛ
i
ɛ:
ie
œ
y
œ:
œa
ʌ
ɯ


ɔ
u


ə
ɨ
ə:
ɨə
e
i


ø
y


ɤ
ɯ
ɤ:
ɤɑ
o
u
o:

ɪ
i


ʏ
y


ʊ
u


i
ɨ
i:
ɨə
y
ʉ
y:
ʉə
ɨ
ɨ
ɨ:
ɨə
ʉ
ʉ
ʉ:
ʉə
ɯ
ɨ
ɯ:
ɨə
u
ʉ
u:
ʉə



<h2>Nouns</h2>


<p>
The following paradigms spread to long and short vowels as well. SO preserves all cases and the transnumeral. A common proces is vowel copying, where the stem vowel is duplicated and appears after the suffix.
</p>
<h3>Singular paradigm</h3>




1
2
3a
3b

final nulled cons. and fric.raising vowel
<p>
(jîx)
final nulled cons. and no fric. raising
<p>
(ôç)
final nonnulled and raising
<p>
(jîp)
final nonnulled cons.
<p>
(vôp)
NOM
-
-
-
-
ACC
Vn
-n
-On (f)
-On (f)
GEN
Vs
-s
-Os (f)
-Os (f)
ALL
-v, delete final
-v

:-á
ADE
-g, delete final
-g
-ag
:-ag
ABL
-l, delete final
-l
-al
:-al
ILL
-Vv
ablaut, -v
-Ó (f)
:-Ó (f)
INE
-Vg
ablaut, -g
-Og (f)
:-Og (f)
ELA
-Vl
ablaut, -l
-Ol (f)
:-Ol (f)
ABE
-x, delete final
ablaut, -x
-Ox (f)
-Ox (f)
COM
.-' delete final
ablaut, -'
-O' (f)
:-O' (f)



<h3>Plural paradigm</h3>




1
2
3a
3b

final nulled cons. and fric.raising vowel
<p>
(jîx)
final nulled cons. and no fric. raising
<p>
(ôç)
final nonnulled and raising
<p>
(jîp)
final nonnulled cons.
<p>
(vôp)
NOM
-
-
-Ú (f)
:-Ú (f)
ACC
-VnU (f)
-nU (f)
-Un (f)
:-Un (f)
GEN
-VsU (f)
-sU (f)
-Us (f)
:-Us (f)
ALL
-vU (f), del. final
-vU (f)
-āvU (f)
:-āvU (f)
ADE
-gU (f), del. final
-gU (f)
-āgU (f)
:-āgU (f)
ABL
-lU (f), del. final
-lU (f)
-ālU (f)
:-ālU (f)
ILL
-VvU (f)
ablaut, -vU (f)
-ÓvU (f)
:-ÓvU (f)
INE
-VgU (f)
ablaut, -gU (f)
-ÓgU (f)
:-ÓgU (f)
ELA
-VlU (f)
ablaut, -lU (f)
-ÓlU (f)
:-ÓlU (f)
ABE
-xU (f), del. final
ablaut, -xU (f)
-OxU (f)
:-OxU (f)
COM
-U' (f)
ablaut, -'
-Ó' (f)
:-Ó' (f)



<h3>Transnumeral paradigm</h3>


<p>
The copied vowel in the 1st and 2nd declension is the base vowel, not the ablauted one.
</p>


1
2
3a
3b

final nulled cons. and fric.raising vowel
<p>
(jîx)
final nulled cons. and no fric. raising
<p>
(ôç)
final nonnulled and raising
<p>
(jîp)
final nonnulled cons.
<p>
(vôp)
NOM
ablaut
ablaut
-a
:-a
ACC
ablaut, -Vn
ablaut, -n
-an
:-an
GEN
ablaut, -Vs
ablaut, -s
-as
:-as
ALL
ablaut, -v
<p>
delete final
ablaut, -v

:-á
ADE
ablaut, -g
<p>
delete final
ablaut, -g
-ag
:-ag
ABL
ablaut, -l
<p>
delete final
ablaut, -l
-al
:-al
ILL
ablaut, -Vv
ablaut, -vV

:-á
INE
ablaut, -Vg
ablaut, -gV
-aga
:-aga
ELA
ablaut, -Vl
ablaut, -lV
-ala
:-ala
ABE
ablaut, -x
<p>
delete final
ablaut, -x
-ax
:-ax
COM
ablaut, -'
<p>
delete final
ablaut, -'
-á'
:-á'



<h3>Examples</h3>


<h4>1st conjugation: jíĉ "ice"</h4>




Singular
Plural
Transnumeral
NOM
jíĉ
jíĉ
jýĉ
ACC
jíĉin
jíĉini
jýĉin
GEN
jíĉis
jíĉisi
jýĉis
ALL
jív
jívi
jýv
ADE
jíg
jígi
jýg
ABL
jíl
jíli
jýl
ILL
jíĉiv
jíĉivi
jýĉiv
INE
jíĉig
jíĉigi
jýĉig
ELA
jíĉil
jíĉili
jýĉil
ABE
jíx
jíxi
jýx
COM
jí'
jíĉi'
jý'



<h4>2st conjugation: ʍẹ "day"</h4>




Singular
Plural
Transnumeral
NOM
ʍẹ
ʍẹ
ʍị
ACC
ʍẹn
ʍẹnị
ʍịn
GEN
ʍẹs
ʍẹsị
ʍịs
ALL
ʍẹv
ʍẹvị
ʍịv
ADE
ʍẹg
ʍẹgị
ʍịg
ABL
ʍẹl
ʍẹlị
ʍịl
ILL
ʍịv
ʍịvị
ʍịvẹ
INE
ʍịg
ʍịgị
ʍịgẹ
ELA
ʍịl
ʍịlị
ʍịlẹ
ABE
ʍịx
ʍịxị
ʍịx
COM
ʍị'
ʍị'
ʍị'



<h4>3rd conjugation (a): èľv "girl"</h4>




Singular
Plural
Transnumeral
NOM
èľv
èľví
èľva
ACC
èľven
èľvin
èľvan
GEN
èľves
èľvis
èľvas
ALL
èľvá
èľvāvi
èľvá
ADE
èľvag
èľvāgi
èľvag
ABL
èľval
èľvāli
èľval
ILL
èľvé
èľvévi
èľvá
INE
èľveg
èľvégi
èľvaga
ELA
èľvel
èľvéli
èľvala
ABE
èľvex
èľvexi
èľvax
COM
èľve'
èľvé'
èľvá'



<h4>3rd conjugation (b): ʀäš "meadow"</h4>




Singular
Plural
Transnumeral
NOM
ʀäš
ʀäššủ
ʀäšša
ACC
ʀäšọn
ʀäššụn
ʀäššan
GEN
ʀäšọs
ʀäššụs
ʀäššas
ALL
ʀäššá
ʀäššāvụ
ʀäššá
ADE
ʀäššag
ʀäššāgụ
ʀäššag
ABL
ʀäššal
ʀäššālụ
ʀäššal
ILL
ʀäššỏ
ʀäššỏvụ
ʀäššá
INE
ʀäššọg
ʀäššỏgụ
ʀäššaga
ELA
ʀäššọl
ʀäššỏlụ
ʀäššala
ABE
ʀäššọx
ʀäššọxụ
ʀäššax
COM
ʀäššọ'
ʀäššỏ'
ʀäššá'



<h2>Vowel harmony</h2>


<p>
South Osveraali preserves the two types of harmony, but makes modifications to the system.
</p>
  • /ɨ ʉ ə ɐ/ are neutral vowels. /ɪ ʏ ʊ/ get assigned to the appropriate front/rounded category. This is different from GO, where the centralised vowels count as neutral.

  • /æ a ʌ/ count as variants of /ɐ/ for the purpose of harmony, which means they are also neutral. However, /ɑ ɒ ɔ/ count as back vowels, the latter two rounded.

  • Words that have exclusively neutral vowels use unrounded front vowel suffixes both in partial and full harmony.

<h2>Verbs</h2>


  • palatalising vs nonpalatalising class - different endings

  • PO present ind. 3SG becomes new citation form

  • loss of the past tense, rebuilt with present participle and past copula

  • dual forms expanded to all persons

  • negative accompanied by a negation particle TODO

  • conditional participle by extension "one who would do"

  • conditional particle becomes obligatory

  • desiderative is lost

<h3>Class I - non-palatalising</h3>




IND.PRS
IND.PST
IND.FUT
NEG
COND
IMP
1S
-ás
-ʀÚṛ (f)
-Ús (p)
-Ýs (p)
hó -Ús (p)
-
2S
-ák
-ʀÚk (f)
-ÚkU (p)
-Ýk (p)
hó -ÚkU (p)
-a
3S

-ʀÓ (f)
-Ú (p)
-Ý (p)
hó -Ú (p)
-a
1D
-ýs
-ʀÚs (f)
-Ús (p)
-Ýs (p)
hó -Ús (p)
-as
2D
-ýk
-ʀÚk (f)
-Úk (p)
-Ýk (p)
hó -Úk (p)
-ak
3D

-ʀÚ (f)
-Ú (p)
-Ý (p)
hó -Ú (p)
-a
1P
-És (p)
-ʀÝċYs (p)
-Ýs (p)
-Ýsta (p)
hó -Úspa (p)
-at
2P
-Ék (p)
-ʀÝċYk (p)
-Ýk (p)
-Ýkta (p)
hó -ÚkUp (p)
-ak
3P
-É (p)
-ʀÝċY (p)
-Ý (p)
-Ýtta (p)
hó -Úppa (p)
-a'
PCP
-áq
-ábba
-Ýʀta
-átta
hó -Ýʀta (p)

ADV
-ʀa





<h4>Example: falbá "to buy"</h4>




IND.PRS
IND.PST
IND.FUT
NEG
COND
IMP
1S
falbás
falbʀíṛ
falbỉs
falbís
hó falbỉs
-
2S
falbák
falbʀík
falbỉkị
falbík
hó falbỉkị
falba
3S
falbá
falbʀé
falbỉ
falbí
hó falbỉ
falba
1D
falbýs
falbʀís
falbỉs
falbís
hó falbỉs
falbas
2D
falbýk
falbʀík
falbỉk
falbík
hó falbỉk
falbak
3D
falbý
falbʀí
falbỉ
falbí
hó falbỉ
falba
1P
falbés
falbʀíċis
falbís
falbísta
hó falbỉspa
falbat
2P
falbék
falbʀíċik
falbík
falbíkta
hó falbỉkịp
falbak
3P
falbé
falbʀíċi
falbí
falbítta
hó falbỉppa
falba'
PCP
falbáq
falbábba
falbíʀta
falbátta
hó falbíʀta

ADV
falbra





<h3>Class II - palatalising</h3>




IND.PRS
IND.PST
IND.FUT
NEG
COND
IMP
1S
-ýs
-ʀÚṛ (f)
-Úš (p)
-Ýš (p)
hó -Úš (p)
-
2S
-ýk
-ʀÚk (f)
-ÚċU (p)
-Ýċ (p)
hó -ÚċU (p)
-E (p)
3S

-ʀÓ (f)
-Ú (p)
-Ý (p)
hó -Ú (p)
-E (p)
1D
-ýš
-ʀÚs (f)
-Úš (p)
-Ýš (p)
hó -Úš (p)
-Es (p)
2D
-ýċ
-ʀÚk (f)
-Úċ (p)
-Ýċ (p)
hó -Úċ (p)
-Ek (p)
3D

-ʀÚ (f)
-Ú (p)
-Ý (p)
hó -Ú (p)
-E (p)
1P
-Éš (p)
-ʀÝċYs (p)
-Ýš (p)
-Ýĉta (p)
hó -ÚćUs (p)
-Et (p)
2P
-Éċ (p)
-ʀÝċYk (p)
-Ýċ (p)
-Ýĉċa (p)
hó -ÚćUp (p)
-Ek (p)
3P
-É (p)
-ʀÝċY (p)
-Ý (p)
-Ýċċa (p)
hó -Úppa (p)
-E' (p)
PCP
-áq
-ábba
-Ýʀča
-átta
hó -Ýʀta (p)

ADV
-ʀa





<h4>Example: ñïpý " to see"</h4>




IND.PRS
IND.PST
IND.FUT
NEG
COND
IMP
1S
ñïpýs
ñïpʀíṛ
ñïpỉš
ñïpíš
hó ñïpỉš
-
2S
ñïpýk
ñïpʀík
ñïpỉċị
ñïpíċ
hó ñïpỉċị
ñïpe
3S
ñïpý
ñïpʀé
ñïpỉ
ñïpí
hó ñïpỉ
ñïpe
1D
ñïpýš
ñïpʀís
ñïpỉš
ñïpíš
hó ñïpỉš
ñïpes
2D
ñïpýċ
ñïpʀík
ñïpỉċ
ñïpíċ
hó ñïpỉċ
ñïpek
3D
ñïpý
ñïpʀí
ñïpỉ
ñïpí
hó ñïpỉ
ñïpe
1P
ñïpéš
ñïpʀíċis
ñïpíš
ñïpíĉta
hó ñïpỉćịs
ñïpet
2P
ñïpéċ
ñïpʀíċik
ñïpíċ
ñïpíĉċa
hó ñïpỉćịp
ñïpek
3P
ñïpé
ñïpʀíċi
ñïpí
ñïpíċċa
hó ñïpỉppa
ñïpe'
PCP
ñïpáq
ñïpábba
ñïpíʀča
ñïpátta
hó ñïpíʀta

ADV
ñïpʀa





<h3>The copula</h3>


<p>
The South Osveraali copula shows syncretism in the dual, where forms based on PO *çâ (stay, stop) replace the largely ambiguous reflexes of SO sound change.
</p>


IND.PRS
IND.PST
IND.FUT
NEG
COND
IMP
1S
ýs
úṛ
úṛu
íĉiš
húṛu

2S
ak
oku
uku
íĉiċ
huoku
a
3S
á
ó
ú
í

a
1D
šás
šéš
šíš
šās
hó šȁš
ša
2D
šák
šéċ
šíċ
šāk
hó šȁċ
šak
3D
šá
šé
ší
šā
hó šȁ
ša
1P
íĉi
íľiš
íĉiš
íšti
húspu
at
2P
íċ
íku
íĉiċ
íĉit
huoku
ak
3P
é
íĉiľ
í
íčči
húppu
a'
PCP
áq
ábba
áʀča
átta
áʀta

ADV




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