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Table of Vrkhazhian roots and their meanings (2 of 3)
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This public article was written by Ahzoh, and last updated on 12 Oct 2016, 05:18.

RootBasic meaningCausativeReflexiveReflexive-CausativeIntensive
l-m-gbattlemake battlebattle oneself
l-n-dlearn [concrete]teachteach oneselfimbibe
l-ḥ-hfight, oppose, defymake fight, oppose, defybecome opposed
l-ḥ-bpurchasemake purchase
l-ḥ-nargue, debatemake argue, debatecontradict oneself
l-ḥ-šstruggle internallymake struggle internally
l-ḥ-čattackprovokeexpose oneself
m-ḵ-bbe turquoisemake turquoisebecome turquoise
m-ḵ-pbe hollowmake hollowhollow oneself
m-v-nengravemake engravebecome engraved
m-v-thike, trekmake hike, trek
m-v-ḥcivilize [intr.]civilize
m-b-nmarkmake markmark oneselfbecome marked
m-b-ḡfeel painmake feel painmake self feel pain
m-ž-nmake a writing mistakemake make a writing mistake
m-ž-tget lostmake get lost
m-ž-ḥdisorganize, connivemake disorganize, connivebecome disorganized
m-l-ḥbefriend, allymake befriend, ally
m-m-trun [intr.]run
m-m-ḥmarrymarry off, make marrymarry oneself
m-n-bvandalize [with writing], be beautifulmake vandalize, beautifybeautify oneself
m-n-nscribble, scrawlmake scribble, scrawl
m-n-šwritemake writewrite oneself
m-ḡ-mnominalizemake nominalize
m-j-moffer [help, suggestion, etc.]make offer
m-š-bmobilize [of an army]mobilize [an army]mobilize oneself
m-t-bwalk all over, mistreatmake walk all over, mistreatbecome mistreated
m-t-kwalk out, desert, abandonevacuateescape, elude
m-t-nprogress [of abstract things]approach
m-t-šenter [a building]make enter [a building]
m-t-twalkmake walk
m-z-lbe tenaciousmake tenaciousbecome tenacious
m-ḥ-bdestroy by mixingmake destroy by mixing
m-ḥ-nagreepersuade, convinceconvince oneself
m-ḥ-šamalgamate, mix [intr.]amalgamate, mix
m-ḥ-ḥunite, combine [intr.]unify, combine
n-v-bkiss [someone's] assmake kiss [someone's] ass
n-v-šown, have [as property]
n-b-bplease, gratifymake please, gratify
n-b-špleadmake plead
n-ž-bfail to please, displease
n-ž-šcarry [parasite, disease, etc.]infect, infestcatch
n-n-šbe sated, satisfiedmake sated, satisfiedbecome sated, satisfiied
n-š-ywant, desiremake want, desire
n-š-nbear, carry, bringmake bear, carry, bring
n-š-šhave, possess [abstract]
ḡ-ž-minsult, offendmake insult, offendinsult, offend oneselfbecome insulted, offended
ḡ-ž-tmiss [something or an opportunity]make miss
ḡ-m-hname, identifymake name, identifyname, identify oneself
ḡ-m-bdiscredit, slander, defamemake discredit, slander, defamebecome discredited
ḡ-m-šdescribe, definemake describe, definedescribe, define oneself
ḡ-m-tdrift, wandermake drift, wander
ḡ-ḡ-tcharge throughmake charge through
ḡ-t-bvaporize, evaporate [intr.]vaporize, evaporate
ḡ-t-nfloatmake float
ḡ-t-npossess [someone]
ḡ-t-tpass by [someone], elapse [of time]make pass by, elapse
ṗ-b-hhearrehearsehear oneselfrehearse oneself
ṗ-b-hlisten attentively, be engrossedcaptivate, make engrossedbecome engrossed
ṗ-b-nhear faintlymake hear faintly
ṗ-b-šeavesdropmake eavesdrop
ṗ-b-šmishear, hallucinatemake mishear, hallucinate
ṗ-ž-šdismember, amputatemake dismember, amputatedismember, amputate oneself
ṗ-m-blistenmake listen, announcelisten oneself
ṗ-m-šbetraybetray oneself
ṗ-š-bshredmake shred
ṗ-š-scleavemake cleave
ṗ-š-mrob, stealmake rob, steal
ṗ-š-ndisagreemake disagree
ṗ-š-šcutmake cutcut oneself
p-d-dfollow [ideals, values]persuadepersuade oneself
p-d-bsacrifice [an animal]make sacrifice [an animal]
p-d-ngo along with, humor [someone]
p-d-šbe selfish, self-servingmake selfish, self-servingbecome selfish, self-serving
p-ž-dbe misguidedmisguidebecome misguided
p-ž-lgive [a disease]make give [a disease]
p-l-bbroadcast, sow [seeds]make broadcast, sow [seeds]
p-l-lgivemake givegive oneselfendow
p-l-nlendmake lendlend oneself
p-l-fgive awaymake give away
p-l-šallow, permitmake allow, permitallow, permit oneself
p-m-dbe loyal, faithfulmake loyal, faithfulbecome loyal, faithful
p-m-lcultivate [land]make cultivate [land]
p-p-ddevote, dedicate, allocatemake devote, dedicate, allocatework as, dedicate oneself
p-p-lendow, bestow, donatemake endow, bestow, donate
p-q-ẕrejoicemake rejoicebecome rejoiced
j-v-mcoachmake coachcoach oneself
j-ž-minadvertently aid [enemy]make inadvertently aid [enemy]
j-m-bcoddle, spoilmake coddle, spoil
j-m-nencouragemake encourageencourage oneself
j-m-šinspire, motivatemake inspire, motivateinspire, motivate oneself
j-j-mdevote, dedicatemake devote, dedicatebecome devoted, dedicated
r-ž-hthink [about], conceiveprovoke thought
r-ž-bestimate, assessmake estimate, assessestimate, assess oneself
r-ž-žoverthink, agonize overmake overthink, agonize over
r-ž-kinnovatemake innovate
r-ž-ndo [s.t.] with little thoughtmake do [s.t.] with little thought
r-ž-šbe of the opinionmake be of the opinion
r-m-žmeditate, ruminatemake meditate, ruminate
r-r-žperceive, understand, graspmake perceive, understand, grasp
r-š-dsweatmake sweatmake oneself sweat
f-f-dleadmake lead
f-d-kspearhead [movement, attack]make spearhead
f-d-npersuade, convincemake persuade, convinceconvince oneself
f-d-šlead into [a place]make lead into [a place]
f-ž-dmislead, trick, betraymake mislead, trick, betraybecome mislead, betrayed
f-m-drulemake rulebecome ruled
f-f-dorder, command, controlmake order, command, controlcontrol oneself, resist urge
š-v-mfoundmake foundbecome founded
š-d-hspeak, saymake speak, sayspeak, say oneselfbecome spoken
š-d-bstuttermake stutter
š-d-kspeak out, interjectmake speak out, interjectbecome interjected
š-d-nwhisper, chattermake whisper, chatter
š-d-šreport [about]make report [about]become reported [about]
š-b-bmigrate, move en massemake migrate, move en masse
š-b-šflood, inundatemake flood, inundatebecome flooded, inundated
š-b-šblasphemy, misspeakmake blasphemy, misspeak
š-ž-mbrew, impendmake brew, impend
š-ž-fdeflect, refract [light]make deflect, refract [light]become deflected, refracted
š-m-hcreate, build, form [abstract]make create, build, form [abstract]
š-m-dnarrate, tellmake narrate, tell
š-m-binvade [a nation], expandmake invade [a nation], expandexpand [intr.]become invaded
š-m-nrepair, healmake repair, healrepair, heal oneselfbecome repaired, healed
š-m-fbe parallelmake parallelbecome parallel
š-m-šbuild character, trainmake build character, trainbuild charactr, train [intr.]
š-m-řknowinformknow oneselfinform oneself
š-f-hreflect, throw backmake reflect, throw back
š-f-htake [s.t.] and scatter it
š-f-nmirror, mimic, copymake mirror, mimic, copy
š-f-šreflect, contemplatemake reflect, contemplate
š-š-dshout, yellmake shout, yellscream
š-š-bsweep away, carry alongmake sweep away, carry alongbecome swept, carried
š-š-mstrengthen, fortifymake strengthen, fortifystrengthen, fortify oneselfbecome strengthened
š-š-foppose, defy, resistmake oppose, defy, resist
w-d-hcovermake coverwear [on body]cover oneself
w-d-bcover completely, blanket, envelopmake cover completely, envelopcover oneself completely
w-d-soverwhelmmake overwhelmoverwhelm oneself
w-d-nhide, concealmake hide, concealhide, conceal oneselfbecome hidden
w-d-šhold down, press uponmake hold down, press upon
w-d-čpaintmake paintpaint oneselfbecome painted
w-ž-dsuffocate, drownmake suffocate, drownsuffocate, drown [intr.]
w-m-dobviatemake obviate
t-ʾ-lforgetmake forgetforget oneselfbecome forgotten
t-ʾ-šdousemake dousedouse oneself
t-h-rcorruptmake corruptcorrupt oneselfbecome corrupted
t-h-quntwistmake untwistuntwist [intr.]become untwisted
t-d-lburymake burybury oneselfbecome buried
t-d-nopen up, unburden oneselfmake open upopen oneself up
t-b-dbe unread
t-b-lspoil [someone]make spoil [someone]become spoiled
t-s-dfall out of lovefell out of love
t-s-brevivemake reviverevive oneself
t-s-ngive [s.t.] with both handsmake give [s.t.] with both hands
t-s-ḡbe youngmake youngbecome young
t-s-čdisconnect [intr.]disconnectmake disconnect
t-ž-śscrape [of skin]scrape [skin]
t-ž-nbe indecisivemake indecisivebecome indecisive
t-y-ldestroymake destroyself-destruct
t-k-fturn back, withdrawmake turn back, withdraw
t-g-zbe unimportant, insignificantmake unimportant, insignificantbecome unimportant
t-l-dbeseigemake beseigebecome beseiged
t-l-ẕfix, repairmake fix, repairfix, repair oneselfbecome fixed, repaired
t-l-grevert, reversemake revert, reversebecome revert, reverse
t-l-ḥmake peacemake make peacemake peace oneself
t-m-nerase [s.t. written]make erase [s.t. written]erase oneselfbecome erased
t-m-tbacktrack, retreat, recedemake backtrack, retreat, recede
t-m-śdeflesh, carvemake deflesh, carvebecome defleshed, carved
t-m-ḥatomize [of people], drift apartatomize [people], make drift apartbecome atomized
t-n-bannoy, irritate, irkmake annoy, irritate, irkbecome irritated, annoyed
t-n-šbe in need ofmake in need ofbecome in need of
t-ḡ-tcome out, appearflush out, make appearbecome flushed out
t-ṗ-bignore, disregardmake ignore, disregardbecome ignored
t-ṗ-šset free, emancipatemake set free, emancipatebecome emancipated
t-p-dcommit apostasymake commit apostasy
t-p-ltakemake take
t-j-mdiscourage, make collapsemake discourage, make collapsediscouragebecome discouraged
t-r-žmisunderstandconfuseconfuse oneself
t-f-dchase away, scare offmake chase away, scare offresign, abdicate
t-š-dbe mute, quietmake mute, quietbecome mute
t-š-mdivorcemake divorcebecome divorced
t-š-fabsorbmake absorbbecome absorbedimbibe
t-w-duncover, revealmake uncover, revealuncover, reveal oneself
t-t-śstripmake stripstrip oneselfbecome stripped
t-z-lstunt, retardmake stunt, retardbecome stunted, retarded
t-z-rtightenmake tightentighten oneselfbecome tightened
t-ś-bscrape awaymake scrape away
t-ś-npeel, erode, abrade [intr.]peel, erode, abrade, wear away
t-ś-śscrapemake scrape
t-ḥ-vbid farewellmake bid farewell
t-ḥ-sbe untouched, unaffectedmake untouched, unaffectedbecome unaffected
t-ḥ-lstraighten [intr.]straightenbecome straightened
t-ḥ-frecombinemake recombinerecombine [intr.]become recombined
t-q-dvomitmake vomitbecome nauseous
t-q-sget up, wake up [intr.]get up, wake up
t-q-ndescendmake descend
t-ṉ-rdropmake dropdrop [intr.]
ṟ-v-mpursue, huntmake pursue, huntbecome pursued, hunted
ṟ-ž-mgo down the wrong pathlead astray
ṟ-m-mfollow [path, goal]make follow [path, goal]
ṟ-m-nplan, plotmake plan, plot
ṟ-m-šrearmake rear
č-ʾ-lspymake spy
č-ʾ-šinterrogatemake interrogate
č-ḵ-ṭcircle in the airmake circle in the air
č-ḵ-pstitch together, throbmake stitch togetherstich oneself together
č-h-rbathemake bathebathe oneself
č-d-ždivide into sixmake divie into sixdivide into six [intr.]become divided into six
č-d-ldig frequently
č-d-noppressmake oppressbecome oppressed
č-ẕ-mmenstruatemake menstruate
č-b-dstudy, learn [abstract]
č-b-lbe strict, harshmake strict, harshbecome strict, harsh
č-s-bbe a serial killermake a serial killerbecome a serial killer
č-s-lrestrict, banmake restrict, ban
č-s-mreplenish, renew, revivemake replenish, renew, revivereplenish, renew oneselfbecome renewed
č-s-nbe a labourermake a labourerbecome a labourer
č-ž-lbe grateful, thankfulmake grateful, thankfulbecome grateful, thankful
č-ž-nbe freeset freebecome free
č-k-ftrademake trade
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