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Pure Middle Voice Verbs
This public article was written by argyle, and last updated on 6 Jun 2017, 01:23.

[comments] Menu 1. Form 2. Use of Pure Middle Voice Verbs 3. Non-Pure Middle Voice Verbs The use of the middle voice in Edievian can express actions that occur outside the subject's control, however, there is a class of verbs that occur solely in the middle voice. These verbs are much like deponent verbs in Latin and other Indo-European languages. Many of these verbs have no active counterpart, or have an active counterpart that is not semantically related.


Pure middle voice verbs always have an infinitive beginning with bao-, the passive voice marker. This prefix inflects like a normal passive voice marker on verbs, meaning that in the present gnomic singular 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person forms of verbs, it inverts to aob- and it has the allomorph baon- before phonetic vowels. These verbs are also always accompanied by the appropriate reflexive pronoun when they are conjugated; re if the subject is singular and ri if the subject is plural.

Due to the inclusion of the passive marker in these verbs, the negative and desiderative forms of these verbs differ from other Edievian verbs. The negative of these verbs looks identical to the negative passive of other verbs; similarly, the desiderative looks like the desiderative passive of other verbs.

Grammar tables for these verbs can be found here:

[top]Use of Pure Middle Voice Verbs

Pure middle voice verbs can have active verb counterparts, but these counterparts are not (usually) semantically related. When conjugated, these verbs must always be accompanied by the appropriate reflexive pronoun, even though the pronoun is not listed with the infinitive.

Middle VerbEnglishActive VerbEnglish
baofeiaeto shut upfeiaeto quiet
baociáolfalomagaeto sunburn----
baogabaeto be located----
baolaegraeto paniclaegraeto pull
baotoldaeto matter, to be important----
baoioncaeto shatter----
baonobaeto disappearobaeto go
baotraestaeto shiver----
baonortaeto worryortaeto feel
baofangaeto be difficultfangaeto cost
baodrusaeto tangle----
baonatraeto meddlenatraeto put

Compare these middle and active counterparts:

Laegran (I pulled) Baolaegran re (I panicked)
Feiéic (You will quiet) Baofeiéic re (You will shut up)

[top]Non-Pure Middle Voice Verbs

There are other active-middle counterparts that are related, usually with the active one being transitive and the middle one being intransitive, or the active being transitive and the middle one being reflexive:

Middle VerbEnglishActive VerbEnglish
baonaoparaeto clog, get cloggedaoparaeto clog (something)
baodospaeto wake (oneself) updospaeto wake up (someone)
baonedcroaeto rise (of dough)edcroaeto expand
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