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Халық Грамматика - Khalik Grammar
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everything you don't want to know
This public article was written by litrobotix, and last updated on 17 Jun 2020, 22:52.

[comments] Menu 1. Introduction 2. Nominal Morphology 3. Adjectival/Adverbial Morphology 4. Pronouns 5. Verbal Morphology 6. Numerals 7. The Main Clause 8. Predicative Clauses 9. Relative Clauses
[top]Introduction


Khalik (natively халықча or халық тел) is a Turkic language of the Central Kipchak branch spoken primarily in East Kazakhstan Region, with a minority in Pavlodar Region, by about 600,000 people, which are mostly older citizens. It is closely related to Bashkir and Tatar and has large quantities of Arabic/Persian borrowings, but, due to its proximity to Russia, it has absorbed many Russian loanwords, as well as Mongolic and Altai ones, mostly through Tuvan. The language is currently written in Cyrillic but is scheduled to switch to Latin by 2025.

As a member of the Turkic family, Khalik is agglutinative, verb-final (there can be variations in subject-object order due to syntactic constructions such as topicalization), and exhibits vowel harmony, which is mainly a backness harmony but round harmony is also present in certain cases, for example the possessive pronoun endings. Khalik is also almost exclusively suffixing, head-final, and left-branching.

As Khalik is spoken over a wide geographical area, it has two main dialects, East Khalik, spoken in East Kazakhstan and North Khalik, spoken around Pavlodar. North Khalik has borrowed more from Russian and Altai, while East Khalik has retained more Tuvan and Perso-Arabic borrowings (East Khalik is the predominant dialect, and as such is the dialect used in this article and in the dictionary):

EnglishWordEast KhalikNorth Khalik
pearалморт[ɑɫˈmo̞rt][ɒɫˈmo̞:t]
swallowқарлығаш[ˈqɑrɫɯɣɑʃ][ˈqʌ:ɫɯʁɑʃ]
ploughһабан[hɑˈpɑ̃n][ɒˈbɑ̃n]
inspirationилһам[ˈɪɫhɑ̃m][ˈɨɫʌ̃m]


[top]Nominal Morphology


Nouns in Khalik can take a number of endings, including case (of which there are 6), a plural marker, and possessive pronouns. Khalik exhibits vowel harmony, and as such each ending has a number of variations, which depend on whether the noun in question ends in a consonant, whether that consonant is voiced or not, whether the vowel preceding it is a back or front vowel, and whether the vowel is rounded or not.

Cases (Singular)

CaseMorphemePossible formsана "mother"батыр "hero"мизгел "season"бурыш "debt"кендек "bellybutton"
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
анабатырмизгелбурышкендек
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-DI-н, -ти, -ты, -ди, -дыананбатырдымизгелдибурыштыкендекти
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-DIñ-ң, -тиң, -тың, -диң, -дыңанаңбатырдыңмизгелдиңбурыштыңкендектиң
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
-GA-г, -ке, -ка, -ге, -гаанагбатыргамизгелгебурышкакендекке
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-DA-д, -те, -та, -де, -даанадбатырдамизгелдебурыштакендекте
ABLAblative (case)
away from
-DAn-нд, -тен, -тан, -ден, -дананандбатырданмизгелденбурыштанкендектен


Cases (Plural)

CaseMorphemePossible formsана "mother"батыр "hero"мизгел "season"бурыш "debt"кендек "bellybutton"
NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-lAr-лер, -лараналарбатырлармизгеллербурышларкендеклер
ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-lArDI-лерди, -лардыаналардыбатырлардымизгеллердибурышлардыкендеклерди
GENGenitive (case)
possessive
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-lArDIñ-лердиң, -лардыңаналардыңбатырлардыңмизгеллердиңбурышлардыңкендеклердиң
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-lArGA-лерге, -ларгааналаргабатырларгамизгеллергебурышларгакендеклерге
LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-lArDA-лерде, -лардааналардабатырлардамизгеллердебурышлардакендеклерде
ABLAblative (case)
away from
.PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-lArDAn-лерден, -лардананаларданбатырларданмизгеллерденбурышларданкендеклерден


Like all Kipchak languages, Khalik has the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, and ablative cases. Like North Kipchak languages, Khalik does not preserve the instrumental case of other Kipchak languages. An innovation of the Central Kipchak languages not present in other Turkic languages is special short case forms for nouns ending in vowels.

Nominative

The nominative case marks the subject of a sentence, or a noun involved in unimportant action:

Жаңырда мысықчык уйнайы.
rain-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
cat-DIMDiminutive
a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
play-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The kitten is playing in the rain.

Китап жуғалтқан малай жулдысы.
book lose-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
boy go-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The boy who lost the book has gone.

Accusative

The accusative marks the object of most transitive verbs (the subject complement does not take the accusative, and instead takes the nominative):

Улар берғы ике уйынды жиңдилар.
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
first two game-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
win-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them

They won the first two games.

Улар қызыл эшлапаларды кейдилар, иректиң рамиз.
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
red cap-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
wear-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
| liberty-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
symbol
They wore red caps, a symbol of liberty.

Genitive

The genitive marks the possessor and is used in many constructions where English would use an adjective, or would not use anything at all:

Қызыктың қурчақ өзел.
girl-DIMDiminutive
a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
doll break-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb

The little girl's doll is broken.

Бавырсақтың зобул кешели танда.
intestines-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
tube human body-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc

The intestinal tract is located in the human body.

Dative

The dative marks indirect objects, as well as nouns in the context of certain verbs. It can also mark general direction towards, or to something:

Малайга мин торнан қағаздан бирдим.
boy-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
crane-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
paper-ABLAblative (case)
away from
give-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I gave the boy a paper crane.

Концертке без белан һин жуларыңмы?
concert-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
with 2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
go-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-QInterrogative
question

Are you going with us to the concert?

Locative

The locative marks locations and places, and does not mark direction. It often stands in for prepositions like "in" or "on":

Бо авылда һин тылдыңмы?
this village-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
give.birth.to-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-QInterrogative
question

Were you born in this village?

Тибөдиң өстеде кече алачықта дана қартқатын тордысы.
hill-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
top-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
small hut-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
wise old_woman live-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

On the top of the hill in a little hut lived a wise old woman.

Ablative

The ablative marks origin, as well as direction out of, and is equivalent in usage to "from" and "out of/from":

Қаладан қунақларың қачан килериме?
city-ABLAblative (case)
away from
guest-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
when come-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-QInterrogative
question

When will your guests from the city arrive?

Агаштан бөт жакрақлар төштесиме?
tree-ABLAblative (case)
away from
all leaf-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
fall-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-QInterrogative
question

Have all the leaves fallen from the tree?

Possessive endings

PronounMorphemePossible formsирте "morning"арт "back"бур "chalk"үлин "grass"көмөш "silver"
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-Vm-м, -ым, -им, -ум, -үмиртемартымбурумүлинимкөмөшүм
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-Vñ-ң, -ың, -иң, -уң, -үңиртеңартыңбуруңүлиниңкөмөшүң
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-Vs-с, -ыс, -ис, -ус, -үсиртесартысбурусүлинискөмөшүс
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-Vr-р, -ыр, -ир, -ур, -үриртерартырбурурүлиниркөмөшүр
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-sV-ы, -и, -у, -ү, -сы, -си, -су, -сүиртесиартыбуруүлиникөмөшү


The possessive pronoun endings come after the case ending, if there is one. A maximally inflected noun would like [noun-CCCommon case (case)
marker for all core cases
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-PNPronoun.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
]. As can be seen in the table above, they have various forms depending on the preceding consonant/vowel. Standalone possessive pronouns do exist, as will be shown in the Pronouns section, but they are rarely used, mostly for emphasis or to distinguish plurality in the third person possessive endings.

Уйындыр туқтал һам тынш бул.
game-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
stop-IMPImperative (mood)
command
and quiet be-IMPImperative (mood)
command

Stop your game and be quiet.

Бо нотан ал, анагаң у таш һам жавапты көт.
this note-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
take-IMPImperative (mood)
command
| mother-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
carry-IMPImperative (mood)
command
and answer-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
wait_for-IMPImperative (mood)
command

Take this note, carry it to your mother, and wait for an answer.

О Ходай! Жил эшлападым өска һуғдысы.
oh god | wind hat-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
upward blow-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

Oh, dear! The wind has blown my hat away!

Куштыңыс исим Жако.
bird-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
name Jacko
Our bird's name is Jacko.

Қунақларга болар кабыкларды күрсат, улым, һам уларга жат тарихтиси һүйл.
guest-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
this-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
shell-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
show-IMPImperative (mood)
command
| son-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
| and 3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
strange history-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
speak-IMPImperative (mood)
command

Show the guests these shells, my son, and tell them their strange history.

[top]Adjectival/Adverbial Morphology


Adjectives and adverbs in Khalik are very minimally inflected, and don't agree with the noun or verb they are describing. Since Khalik is primarily head-final, adjectives and adverbs appear before nouns and verbs. Both adjectives and adverbs can take the following endings/particles:

Comparative

The comparative ending is -рақ/-реқ, and is equivalent to English "-er" or "more". The equivalent of "than" is indicated by putting the respective noun in the ablative case.

У ағаданы биекреқ.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
brother-ABLAblative (case)
away from
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
tall-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'

She is taller than her brother.

Жил қачан һуғдысы, саяһатчы плащтысы үзү түңеректе тығызрақ қатлудысы.
wind blow-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
| traveler mantle-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
self-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
around tightly-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
wrap-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

When the wind blew, the traveler wrapped his mantle more closely around him.

Superlative

The superlative is marked with a particle, иң, and is equivalent to english "-est" or "most".

Без дайдыңым авылды килдыс, доняда иң олоғ авыл.
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
uncle-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
village-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
visit-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
| world-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
SUPSuperlative (comparison)
English 'most', '-est'
big village
We visited my uncle's village, the largest village in the world.

Кича авылда иң қарт қыз мысықчыктысы жуғалтудысы.
yesterday village-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
SUPSuperlative (comparison)
English 'most', '-est'
old girl cat-DIMDiminutive
a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
lose-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten.

Reduplication

In Khalik, partial initial reduplication in adjectives and adverbs strengthens or intensifies their meaning:

Себеттың ақ-ақ қапқақ иданга төштеси.
basket-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
REDUPReduplication
full or partial reduplication of a word, stem, root, or morpheme
-white cover floor-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
fall-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The bright white cover of the basket fell to the floor.

Шакар тат-татлы.
sugar REDUPReduplication
full or partial reduplication of a word, stem, root, or morpheme
-sweet
Sugar is quite sweet.

[top]Pronouns


Khalik has 6 pronouns across three persons. Gender distinctions, like everywhere in Khalik, are absent. All the cases that apply to nouns apply to pronouns. Because pronouns are so ubiquitous, some forms in certain cases are irregular, specifically in the singular number. The irregular forms are bolded in the table below, which shows all the pronouns in Khalik declined to all the cases:

Case1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
Nominative минһину*безһезулар
Accusative минеһинеуныбездиһездиуларды
Genitive минеңһинеңуныңбездиңһездиңулардың
Dative миңаһиңауғабезгеһезгеуларга
Locative миндеһиндеундабездеһездеуларда
Ablative минанһинанунанбезденһезденулардан


*Khalik has lost the final /l/ in the third person singular pronoun that is present in all other Kipchak languages (Kazakh ол, Tatar ул, Bashkir ул). The reason for this is unclear. In some regional dialects, especially in the north, ул is used instead.

Reflexive pronouns are marked by using the base үз and attaching the possessive suffixes. A reflexive meaning can also be indicated by a special conjugation of the verb, which will be mentioned in the Verbal Morphology section:

үз - "self"
үзүм - "myself"
үзүң - "yourself"
үзүс - "ourselves"
үзүр - "yourselves"
үзү - "himself/herself/itself/themselves"

Note:

While genitive forms of pronouns exist, they are almost never used. Sometimes they are used to distinguish the third person singular possessive ending from the third person plural one, so for example:

өйү "other person's house" vs. уның өйү "his/her/its house" and улардың өйү "their house" (note the third person possessive endings are still used).

Another use is stress. By mixing the possessive endings and pronouns one can emphasize certain things:

өй - "house"
өйүм - "my house"
минең өйүм - "my house"
минең өй - "my house"

[top]Verbal Morphology


Khalik verbs can take endings for three tenses, six pronouns, three aspects, three moods, three voices, five participles, and other affixes which have a variety of meanings. Verbs agree with the subject and are the last in the sentence.

Infinitive

The generic infinitive ending is (front rounded harmony)/ (everything else). Another common ending is -ла/-ле (the most common verbalizer), and a variety of others, mostly from derivational endings. To arrive at the root form of a verb, the final vowel of the infinitive form is removed. When a verb is inflected, the infinitive vowel can be added in two cases: if the suffix contains two consonants and no vowel, or if the verb root has a final consonant cluster and the suffix begins with a consonant:

күрү "to see" (root form: күр-): күр-де "saw" but күр-ү-йм "let me see"
жоклу "to sleep" (root form: жокл-): жокл-ай "sleeping" but жокл-у-ды "slept"

Verbal pronoun endings

1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
2PSecond person plural (person)
addressee (plural)
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
Ending -м, -ым, -им, -ум, -үм-ң, -ың, -иң, -уң, -үң-ы, -и, -у, -ү, -сы, -си, -су, -сү-с, -ыс, -ис, -ус, -үс-р, -ыр, -ир, -ур, -үр-лар


As you can see, the suffixes are practically identical to the possessive endings, except for the third person plural.

Ғажап сорнайдасы у көйди уйнудысы.
incredible flute-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
melody-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
play-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

He played a tune on his wonderful flute.

Һин жайды я кышты жаратайыңмы?
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
summer-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
or winter-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
like-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-QInterrogative
question

Do you like summer or winter?

Аха! Мин һине тергудым!
aha | 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
catch-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

Aha! I have caught you!

Без жаңы алда ни һар көн өйранайыс.
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
new STEMWord stem
part of a bipartite stem
something each day learn-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

We learn something each day.

Tense endings

PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.INDIndicative mood (mood)
a common form of realis
Ending -ды, -де, -ты, -те-ай, -ей-ар, -ер


The tense markers are placed right after the root and before the person markers. The default mood is the indicative, other mood is marked by suffixes.

Кышта төнде мин уянайым.
winter-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
night-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
wake_up-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

In the winter I get up at night.

Өйгес без бо урынды харлыдыс.
home-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
this place-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
make-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

We made this place our home.

Бақчачыдан "Бо агаш илле футтың буй" дирдиси.
gardener-ABLAblative (case)
away from
| this tree fifty feet-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
height | say-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

"This tree is fifty feet high," said the gardener.

Өйде мин қаларым эгер жавары.
home-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
stay-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
if rain-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

I shall stay at home if it rains.

Mood endings

CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
Ending -за, -зе, -са, -се-асы, -есы*-қай, -қей


*The necessitative has three quirks. The first is that, in an exception to the standard rule, where mood comes immediately after the root and before the tense and person marker, the necessitative comes after the person marker. The second is that the necessitative requires an auxiliary verb, бар, which comes after the verb, making the literal meaning: "there is a need for [verb]". Finally the necessitative cannot take a tense ending.

Ханым, мин бойороқтың жарқайарың.
madam | 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
command-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
obey-SBJVSubjunctive mood (mood)
desired or possible events
-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)

Madam, I might obey your command.

Көт, мин һедек итимасы бар.
wait-IMPImperative (mood)
command
| 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
urine do-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
there_is
Wait, I need to pee.

Һин темизреқ жазыңасы бар.
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
neatly-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
write-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
there_is
You must write more neatly.

Залда мин көтседим эгер мин ирте килдим.
hall-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
wait-CONDConditional (mood)
[if X,] then I would...
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
if 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
early come-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

If I came early, I would have waited in the hall.

Aspect endings

INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
CESSUnknown codeCVBConverb
adverbial subordinator
.until
Ending -бар, -бер, -кар, -кер-баста, -беста, -паста, -песта-ганчы, -генчы


The aspect ending comes after the mood ending (if there is one) and before the tense/person maker. Unlike the mood endings, the aspect endings do not require the tense marker. The "until" meaning is not an aspect but a converb, since the meaning lies outside of the verb. As such, it is affixed after the person and tense markers.

Жөзөктим ездубаста!
ring-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
search-CESSUnknown code-IMPImperative (mood)
command

Stop looking for my ring!

Жаңырда қарлығаш жырлабармы?
rain-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
swallow sing-INCHInchoative (aspect)
'beginning, becoming'
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-QInterrogative
question

Does the swallow start to sing in the rain?

Жавбастадысы.
rain-CESSUnknown code-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The rain has stopped.

Тармақты иел өзеригенчы.
branch-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
bend-IMPImperative (mood)
command
break-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-CVBConverb
adverbial subordinator
.until
Bend the branch until it breaks.

Voice endings

REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
Ending -н, -ын, -ен-тыр, -тер, -тор, -төр-л, -ыл, -ел, -ын, -ен*


*The -Vн endings are the form of the passive suffix after л

Note: the reflexive endings are very rare in Modern Khalik, as they can be confused for the passive ending, and most speakers nowadays use a reflexive pronoun instead.

Жакрақлар белан тиендиң оя үртелдиси.
leaf-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
with squirrel-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
nest hide-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The squirrel's nest was hidden by leaves.

Мин жаралындым.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
injure-REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I hurt myself.

У һикаядың ошлы өлөшти жана диртерарыммы?
that story-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
last part-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
again say-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-QInterrogative
question

Will you make me tell the last part of that story again?

У қапқа бер-қачан да ачпалдысы.
that gate never STEMWord stem
part of a bipartite stem
open-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

That gate is never opened.

Other endings

1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.IMPImperative (mood)
command
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
.IMPImperative (mood)
command
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.IMPImperative (mood)
command
NEGNegative (polarity)
not
QInterrogative
question
Ending -йн-∅-сын, -син-ба, -бе, -па, -пе, -ма, -ме*-мы, -ме


*The -мV endings are the form of the negative suffix after nasals.

Note: The negative endings come immediately after the root and before all other endings. The interrogative suffix comes after all other suffixes. The imperative endings do not distinguish pronoun plurality, and as such can carry both meanings, i.e. both "let me X" and "let us X".

Том маймылдың пранкты көлбедиси.
Tom monkey-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
prank-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
laugh-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

Tom didn't laugh at the monkey's prank.

Жулуйн!
go-1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
.IMPImperative (mood)
command

Let's go!

Суқ жил борондысы суқласын!
cold wind nose-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
freeze-3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.IMPImperative (mood)
command

May the cold wind freeze his nose!

Һин мине көтейиңме?
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
wait-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-QInterrogative
question

Are you waiting for me?

Participial/Gerundive endings

PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
/ PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
GERGerund
verbal noun
Ending -ыл, -ел-ған, -ген, -қан, -кен-усы-асақ-малы, -мелы-ып, -еп, -ганса, -қанса*


*The last two endings are the form of the gerund suffix for loan words.

Note: while the -ыл/-ел endings are used for the passive participle in literary and formal Khalik, the past participle is also used as a passive participle in colloquial Khalik, under influence of Tatar.

Мин қачасақ балықчы күрдим.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
flee-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
fisherman see-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I saw the soon to be fleeing fisherman.

Һин һеберке белан күрел бақчачы табындыңмы?
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
broom with see-PASSPassive voice (valency)
be verb-ed
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
gardener meet-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-QInterrogative
question

Did you meet the visible gardener with a broom?

Шалқанлар жилеп гонаһ.
turnip-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
eat-GERGerund
verbal noun
sin
Eating turnips is a sin.

Розалар без күрген урынга без қайтудыс.
rose-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
see-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
place-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
return-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

We went back to the place where we saw the roses.

Улар бала жилусы халық.
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
child eat-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
people
They are a child-eating people.

Мин китап уқмалы ир.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
book read-NECNecessitative mood (mood)
must, have to
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
man
I am a man who needs to read a book.

Phrasal verbs

A large number of Khalik verbs are phrasal (i.e. a verb built from a noun and an auxiliary verb). Some of the most common auxiliary verbs used in constructions:

иту "do"
- керпек иту "blink" (lit. "eyelash do")
- һаракат иту "move" (lit. "movement do")
- жал иту "rest" (lit. "rest (n.) do")
- һедек иту "urinate" (lit. "urine do")

алу "take"
- һатып алу "buy" (lit. "selling take")
- дем алу "breathe" (lit. "breath take")

Existential clauses

Khalik has existential clauses that often act in coordination with other verbs.

- бар "there is"
- жуқ "there isn't"
- түгөл "it isn't"
- мумкин "it's possible"

У жаңылыш түгөл, бероқ у дөрөс де түгөл.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
wrong be_not | but 3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
correct also be_not
It's not wrong, but it's not correct either.

Индиада филлер бар.
India-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
elephant-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
there_is
There are elephants in India.

Кешелер очпау мумкин.
human-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
fly-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb
is_possible
Humans cannot fly.

Мин бақтелу харлусы кеше жуқ.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
happy make-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
person there_is_not
There isn't a person who can make me happy.

Possession

Khalik has no verb with the meaning of "have; possess", and instead to indicate possession uses an existential clause in the construction "in P X there is". So for example, to say "I have a book", in Khalik one would say "in me there is a book".

Улардан безде күпреқ вақыт бар.
3PThird person plural (person)
neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
-ABLAblative (case)
away from
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
more time there_is
We have more time than they.

Арқадым минде күкерқыш бар.
back-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
bruise there_is
I have a bruise on my back.

[top]Numerals


Khalik has a decimal system of numerals:

NumberWordNumberWord
0нөл [nø̞ɫ]20жигерме [ˈd͡ʒɪke̞rme̞]
1бер [pe̞r]30утоз [ʊˈtʰo̞z]
2ике [ˈɪkʰe̞]40қырқ [qɯrq]
3өш [ø̞ʃ]50илле [ˈɪɫɫe̞]
4дүрт [tyrt]60алтмыш [ˈɑɫtʰmɯʃ]
5биш [pɪʃ]70житмеш [ˈd͡ʒɪtʰme̞ʃ]
6алты [ˈɑɫtʰɯ]80һиксун [ˈhɪkʰsʊ̃n]
7жите [ˈd͡ʒɪtʰe̞]90дуқсун [ˈtʊqsʊ̃n]
8һикез [hɪˈkʰe̞z]100жөз [d͡ʒø̞z]
9дуқоз [tʊˈqo̞z]1,000мың [mɯŋ]
10ун [ʊn]1,000,000миллион [mɪɫɫɪˈõ̞n]


Ordinal numbers are formed using -қы/ғы/ку/гу (the first two of which are strangely used for numerals ending in front vowels), which is of Mongolic origin, meaning that Khalik ordinals look quite different from most other Turkic languages:

- биш "five" > бишқы "fifth"
- алтмыш "sixty" > алтмышку "sixtieth"
- ике "two" > икеғы "second"
- дуқоз "nine" > дуқозгу "ninth"

"First" is irregular - тай (from Proto-Turkic *teb “time; initial, early”) - though берғы, a more regular, archaic form, also exists.

Khalik also exhibits collective numbers ("x of something", "x people"), which are formed generally quite regularly using the affix -ав (from Proto-Turkic *-ägü "group of"), with final vowels truncated:

- дуқоз "nine" > дуқозав "nine (collective)"
- жите "seven" > житав "seven (collective)"
- биш "five" > бишав "five (collective)"
- өш "three" > өчав "three (collective)" (the irregularity here arises because final ч in Khalik became ш)

Numbers from 11-19 are formed using the construction "ун X" (lit. "ten [and] number"):

- һикез "eight" > ун һикез "eighteen"
- алты "six" > ун алты "sixteen"
- дүрт "four" > ун дүрт "fourteen"
- ике "two" > ун ике "twelve"

Larger numbers are formed by combining tens and thousands larger to smaller in the same way:

өш миллион алты жөз қырқ бер мың жөз жигерме өш һикез "three million six hundred forty-one thousand one hundred twenty-eight"

Like in other Turkic languages, nouns remain in the singular after numerals:

- биш жеғет "five guys"
- илле төс "fifty shades"
- жигерме бер очучы "twenty-one pilots"
- жите жөзөк "seven rings"

[top]The Main Clause


Declarative

Khalik has a basic word order of SOV. Adjectives and numerals come before nouns, adverbs before verbs, and adpositions after nouns. Prepositional phrases come before the subject, as do indirect objects.

Дустаның без ақырынрақ жилейис.
friend-ABLAblative (case)
away from
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
slowly-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
eat-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

We eat more slowly than your friend.

Мин кейезди қуллайым өчөн қурчақлар харлы.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
felt-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
use-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
in_order_to doll-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
make-INFInfinitive (TAM)
non-tensed verb

I use felt to make dolls.

Өч қуйы белан минде биш қуй бар.
three sheep-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
with 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
five sheep there_is
With his three sheep I have five sheep.

Negation

As mentioned previously, negation is carried by the verb through a suffix (there is an exception to this rule that will be discussed in the Predicate clauses section), or through a negative adverb. Double negatives generally ungrammatical unless required, for example after the adverb "never".

Пыяла аша мин үзүм күрбейым.
glass through 1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
self-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
see-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I don't see myself through the glass.

Без у бер-қачан да дирбедим.
1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)
that never STEMWord stem
part of a bipartite stem
say-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1PFirst person plural (person)
we (inclusive or exclusive)

We never said that!

Interrogatives

Questions are marked using interrogative pronouns, intonation, and the interrogative suffix -мы/-ме (attached to the end of the verb).

Поезд қачан килери?
train when come-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
-QInterrogative
question

When is the train arriving?

Һин тарелканым өздиңме?
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
plate-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.GENGenitive (case)
possessive
break-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
-QInterrogative
question

Did you break my plate?

[top]Predicative Clauses


Khalik exhibits a zero copula in the present tense. The subject complement takes the nominative case. In the past and future tense the verb булу "become" is used.

У кече, бероқ көчлө.
3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
small | but strong
He is small, but strong

Мин жарлы ир иртереқ булдым.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
poor man early-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
become-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I was once a poor man.

To convey negative meaning a negative copula (see Verbal morphology) түгөл "be not" is used, but only in the present tense. In the past and future tense the verb булба "not become" is used.

Мин қарақ түгөл.
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
thief be_not
I'm not a thief

Қатын емин булбадысы.
woman certain become-NEGNegative (polarity)
not
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The woman was not certain.

To express complement clauses, Khalik nominalizes the verb phrase, either using the gerund suffix or some other derivational strategy. Participles can also be used, especially if the phrase is intransitive.

Урамда өйратчы балалардың уйныпты күрдиси.
street-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
teacher child-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
play-GERGerund
verbal noun
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
see-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The teacher saw the children playing in the street. (Lit. "The teacher saw the children's playing in the street")

Урамда өйратчы уйнусы балаларды күрдиси.
street-LOCLocative (case)
'in, on, at' etc
teacher play-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
child-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
see-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-3SThird person singular (person)
neither speaker nor addressee

The teacher saw the children playing in the street. (Lit. "The teacher saw the playing children in the street")

[top]Relative Clauses


Relative clauses in Khalik are conveyed with participles, and as such the relative clause is placed before the noun (participles are treated as adjectives in Khalik). The nouns in the relative clause do not take the accusative case, since the verb is now a participle.

Болар һин харлыған чичиклер.
this-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
want-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
flower-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

These are the flowers that you wanted.

Киме жаралған балықчы һазир түлге тиеш.
boat own-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
fisherman now pay-EEpenthetic
something 'meaningless' inserted for structural reasons
must
The fisherman who damaged the boat now has to pay.

Һиңа мин һин иһтыяж булусы китапларды кредит бирерим.
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
.DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
2SSecond person singular (person)
addressee (you)
necessity become-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
book-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
loan give-FUTFuture (tense)
action occurring after the moment of speech
-1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I

I shall lend you the books that you need.

Гномлар жир төпте торусы кече ирлер.
gnome-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
ground under reside-PRESPresent tense (tense)
current
.PCPParticiple
adjectival form of a verb
small man-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few

Gnomes are little men who live under the ground.

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