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The Shikathi Number System
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numbers, numerals, pluralizers, decimals, fractions
This public article was written by Vulcanman, and last updated on 30 Mar 2018, 23:00.

[top]Numeric System at a Glance

The Shikathi numeric system is a base 10 system (um... I think). It’s composed of 3 different classes of numerals. Core Class, Lower Class, and Upper Class.

Background information:

The names of the classes have nothing to do with any societal structure. Rather they represent how and where the corresponding numerals are written in Shikathi skript. The core glyph is written in the center with the lower glyphs surrounding the core and the upper glyphs surrounding the lower. This article will not go into how to write the numeral itself, but rather how to say it. To illustrate this, I'll include the English numbers with the words written out along with the actual numerals in parenthesis.

Below is a list of the numerals within each class:

Core ClassLower ClassUpper ClassAlternate Upper Class
value = x*1 or x*10 value = x*1value = x*100value = x*100
zero harīran (rān)haraharī
one zen (zyn)(zn)tun (tyn)(tn)barabarī
two firvek (vyk)(vk)kerakerī
three lor (lyr)(lr)ve (vē)(vī)maramarī
four betky (ki)tlara (tylara)(tilara)tlarī (tylarī)(tilarī)
five ghīm (ghym)(ghm)ghūm (ghym)(ghm)garagarī
six tae (te)mīnferaferī
seven iā (īa)ven (vyn)(vn)seraserī
eight lahor (hyr)indraindrī
nine dim (dym)(dm)zam(zym)(zm)era (iera)erī (ierī)

The core numerals may be used for single digit figures. Shikathi numerals function like adjectives and as such, are placed after the nouns they modify.

Five dogs (5 is a single digit number and so we will use the core numeral “ghīm”)
arlhäthky ghīm

Nine people
drūmky dim

You'll notice that the word for dogs (arlhäthky) and people (drūmky) are in the plural with the suffix -ky. This is grammatically correct. However, it is also common to see the singular version of these words followed by the number as it is understood that the word is inherently plural. And so the following is not only possible, it is more common:

Five dogs
arlhäth ghīm

Nine people
drūm dim

[top]Double Digit Numbers

If we were to represent the value of the core numeral in a formula, we could say that the core numerals have the value of x*1 only if we’re sticking with single digit numbers. That is only if no lower class numeral is needed.

If we move up to any multiple digit numbers, we bring in the need for lower class numerals that assume the x*1 value. The core numeral value shifts to x*10.

In any number, the numerical sequence is always: core+lower+upper

Fifteen dogs
arlhäthky zenghym

core numeral = zen (value = 1*10 )
lower numeral = ghīm (value = 5*1)

Twenty nine people
drūmky firzam

core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)
lower numeral = zam (value = 9*1)

The Shikathi system does not usually express leading zeroes. It’s not that it can’t it’s just something that’s not done except in scientific, academic, or elite circles.

Nine (09) (academic / elite register)
haryzam or harzm

core numeral = harī (value = 0*10)
lower numeral = zam (value = 9*1)

Nine (09) (neutral register:)
dim

Leading zero not expressed (there's no need for a lower class numeral and so the core numeral reverts back to the x*1 formula)
core numeral = dim (value = 9*1)

[top]Triple Digit Numbers

The last set of Shikathi numerals are upper class numerals and it’s formula is x*100. Remember that in any number, the numerical sequence is always: core+lower+upper

One hundred fifty (150) dogs
arlhäthky ghymrānbara

core numeral = ghīm (value = 5*10)
lower numeral = ran (value = 0*1)
upper numeral = bara (value = 1*100)

Two hundred ninty two people (292)
drūmky dymvekera (contracted form of “dymvekkera”)

core numeral = dim (value = 9*10)
lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)
upper numeral = kera (value = 2*100)

Note: dymvekera is not to be confused with:

dymvēkera (or alternatively: dymvīkera) = two hundred ninty three (293)
core numeral = dim (value = 9*10)
lower numeral = vē / vī (value = 3*1)
upper numeral = kera (value = 2*100)

or

dymvekiera = nine hundred ninety two (992)
core numeral = dim (value = 9*10)
lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)
upper numeral = iera (value = 9*100)

[top]Core Numerals with Upper Numerals (Omitting Lower Numerals)

For numbers like: 101, 203, and 608, where the tens digit is a zero, Shikathi will not express the zero. Instead, the lower class numeral is omitted and the core numeral reverts back to the x*1 formula. The upper class numeral is used as normal.

One hundred one (101) dogs (shame I don't have a word for Dalmatians)
arlhäthky zenbara

core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)
upper numeral = bara (value = 1*100)

Two hundred three (203) people
drūmky lorkera

core numeral = lor (value = 3*1)
upper numeral = kera (value = 2*100)

[top]Numbers 1,000 and Greater

Each set of numerals (core+lower+upper) is considered to be a single phrase. Numbers 1,000 and greater are made up of multiple phrases. Shikathi numeric phrases are analogous to our groupings of 3 digits for large numbers.

For example: the number 1,000 is made up of two Shikathi numeric phrases (1) and (000)

One thousand (1,000)
zen harī (Important note: although "zen" does mean "one", "harī" does not mean "thousand" but rather it indicates "0*100" for that phrase and ultimately means "zero".)

Phrase 1: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: Alternate upper numeral = harī (value = 0*100)

Also I should point out here that the alternate form harī is used instead of hara so as not to confuse zenhara (001) for zen hara (1,000) both pronounced exactly the same. For this number, it is not so important as Shikathi tends not to express leading zeroes. However this anomaly can be extremely confusing for other numbers like zenbara (101) and zen bara (1,100). For this reason all base hundreds end in ī and so we get zenbara (101) vs. zen barī (1,100).

As mentioned before, leading zeroes within a phrase tend not to be expressed and so we have the following example:

One thousand one (1,001)
zen zen

Phrase 1: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

Although academics and elites may use: zen zenhara

Phrase 1: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: upper numeral = hara (value = 0*100)

Some additional examples of higher numbers:

Twelve thousand four hundred twenty one (12,421)
zenvyk firtuntlara

Phrase 1: core numeral = zen (value = 1*10)
Phrase 1: lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)
Phrase 2: core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)
Phrase 2: lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

Eight hundred twelve thousand four hundred twenty one (812,421)
zenvykindra firtuntlara

Phrase 1: core numeral = zen (value = 1*10)
Phrase 1: lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)
Phrase 1: upper numeral = indra (value = 8*100)
Phrase 2: core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)
Phrase 2: lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

One million eight hundred twelve thousand four hundred twenty one (1,812,421)
zen zenvykindra firtuntlara

Phrase 1: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: core numeral = zen (value = 1*10)
Phrase 2: lower numeral = vek (value = 2*1)
Phrase 2: upper numeral = indra (value = 8*100)
Phrase 3: core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)
Phrase 3: lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)
Phrase 3: upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)

[top]Pluralizers

Remember that core numerals are used for single digit numbers and so:

Five dogs. = arlhäthky ghīm

Nine people. = drūmky dim

However, the Shikathi people may use pluralizers instead of the core numerals. Pluralizers are suffixes that are also derived from the Old Shikathi numeric system.

The pluralizers are as follows:

Pluralizer
general-ky (-ki)
dual-kō
trial-kā
qty of five-kū
qty of six-kē
qty of seven-kyn (-kn)
qty of eight-kae
qty of nine-kyt (-kt)

And so:

arlhäthky ghīm can be arlhäth.
drūmky dim can be drūmkyt.

As we'll see in the next sections, pluralizers are also used in conjunction with the numerical system to indicate repetitive numeric phrases as well as exponential numbers.

[top]Pluralizers and Repetitive Numeric Sequences

So we’ve covered how Shikathi numbers are composed of up to three sets of numerals. These numerals combine to create a numeric phrase. If a phrase repeats itself, a pluralizer is affixed to the phrase of that repetition. The pluralizer to use is determined by how many times the phrase is repeated.

Some examples:

four hundred twenty one thousand four hundred twenty one (421,421)
firtuntlara

Phrase 1: core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)
Phrase 1: lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)
Phrase 1: upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)
Pluralizer: kō (value = qty of 2)

four hundred twenty one million four hundred twenty one thousand (421,421,000)
firtuntlara harī

Phrase 1: core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)
Phrase 1: lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)
Phrase 1: upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)
Pluralizer: kō (value = 2)
Phrase 2: upper numeral = harī (value = 0*100)

four hundred twenty one quintillion four hundred twenty one quadrillion and one (421,421,000,000,000,000,001)
firtuntlara hary zen

Phrase 1: core numeral = fir (value = 2*10)
Phrase 1: lower numeral = tun (value = 1*1)
Phrase 1: upper numeral = tlara (value = 4*100)
Pluralizer: kō (value = 2)
Phrase 2: upper numeral = harī (value = 0*100)
Pluralizer: kī (value = 4)
Phrase 3: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)

[top]Pluralizers as Exponents

Shikathi also uses the pluralizer to denote an exponential value.

Pluralizer
used for the powers of 10 through 19-ky (-ki)
squared-kō
cubed-kā
to the fourth-kī
to the fifth-kū
to the sixth-kē
to the seventh-kyn (-kn)
to the eighth-kae
to the ninth-kyt (-kt)

Examples:

101 = zenran (there is no way to say X to the first power in Shikathi)
102 = zenran but... barī (100) is more common to say
103 = zenran but... zen harī (1,000) is more common to say
104 = zenran but... zenran harī (10,000) is more common to say
105 = zenran but.. barī harī (100,000) is more common to say
106 = zenran but… zen harī (1,000,000) is more common to say
106 = zenrānkn but… zenran harī (10,000,000) is more common to say
108 = zenrankae but… barī harī (100,000,000) is more common to say
109 = zenrānkyt but… zen harī (1,000,000,000) is more common to say

1010 = zenrānky zenrānthī
1011 = zenrānky zentunthī
1012 = zenrānky zenvekthī
etc...

[top]Pluralizers as prefixes

Although pluralizers are usually attached to the end of a word, you may attach them to the beginning. This happens in a similar way that postpositional affixes can become prepositional (i.e. fanī = under the house vs. fānī = the space under the house aka the basement). Doing this changes the meaning slightly and is usually translated as "the thing with..."

For example:

eight arms
kelthyrkae
arm-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.eight

but

the eight-armed (thing) (i.e. octopus / squid)
kaekelthr
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.eight-arm

Another example:

Three heads are better than one.
prans gōsheshaemthī zenkys.
three of something, number "three"
desire-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
syntactic
one-than

but

prans grōsheshaemthī drōprānkys
TRITrial (number)
three of something, number "three"
e.g. 'better'
syntactic

Note: In the previous example, since there is no prefix in Shikathi that means "one" or "a single", the prepositional affix drō- (with) is used. "drōprāns" therefore means "the thing with a head" and can be translated as "the thing with a single head". For additional details on how pre- and post-positional affixes work, please go here.

[top]Positive and Negative Numbers

Use the affix to indicate a positive or negative number.

As a prefix, it indicates a positive number (only used for emphases.)
zenky = fourteen
zenky = positive fourteen (+14)

As a suffix, it indicates a negative number.
zenky (zenk) = negative fourteen (-14)

As a circumfix, it indicates a positive and negative number.
zenky = positive and negative fourteen (+/-14)

It's important to note that the affixes are attached to a sequence of phrases and doesn't need to be attached to each and every phrase in a number.

zenran harī = positive ten thousand (+10,000)
zenran harī = negative ten thousand (-10,000)
zenran harī = positive and negative ten thousand (+/-10,000)

[top]Decimals

Numbers less than whole are usually represented as decimals. Just like with whole numbers, the decimal system incorporates the 3 different classes of numerals. Core Class, Lower Class, and Upper Class.

Background information:

In writing the decimal system, the core class actually uses a different set of glyphs but they are still considered core. The lower glyphs are exactly the same as those for whole numbers. While the upper glyphs are usually the same, the alternate upper glyphs are different from their whole number counterparts.

Below is the list of numerals within each class and their decimal values. You’ll see that the core and upper class numerals are prefixed with “gy”, “ge”, “”, or “gi”. This is the indicator of a number less than whole. The prefix will never be attached to lower class numerals.

Core ClassLower ClassUpper ClassAlternate Upper Class
value = x/10 or x/100) value = x/10value = x/1000value = x/1000
zero gyharī (gyhary)ran (rān)haragyharī or harī
one gyzen (gezyn)tun (tyn)(tn)baragybarī or barī
two gyfir (gefyr)vek (vyk)(vk)keragykerī or kerī
three gylor (gelyr)ve (vē)(vī)maragymarī or marī
four gybet (gebyt)ky (ki)tlara (tylara)(tilara)gytlarī (gytylarī) or tlarī (tylarī)(tilarī)
five gyghīm (geghym)ghūm (ghym)(ghm)garagygarī or garī
six gytae (gete)mīnferagyferī or ferī
seven geā (gēa)ven (vyn)(vn)seragyserī or serī
eight gylā (gela)hor (hyr)indragēindrī or indrī
nine gydim (gedym)zam(zym)(zm)era (iera)gierī or erī (ierī)

The rules for putting together decimal numbers are pretty much the same as outlined above for whole numbers. The difference is that instead of the formulas:

Core = x*1 or x*10
Lower = x*1
Upper = x*100

We now have:

Core = x/10 or x/100
Lower = x/10
Upper = x/1000

Single Digit Examples

Just like with whole numbers, use the core numeral for single digits. There is no leading zero in Shikathi decimals.

Five tenths (0.5) water
sähar geghm.

Nine tenths (0.9) water
sähar gedm

Double Digit Examples

Again, just like with whole numbers, with double digits, the core value will shift. This time from x/10 to x/100 with the lower numeral taking the value of x/10. The numerical sequence is still: core+lower+upper.

Fifteen hundredths (0.15) water
sähar gyghīmtn

core numeral = gyghīm (value = 5/100)
lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)

Ninety two hundredths (0.92) water
sähar gyfirzm

Core numeral = gyfir (value = 2/100)
Lower numeral = zam (value = 9/10)

Similar to Shikathi not expressing leading zeroes on the whole side, it does not express trailing zeroes on the decimal side except in very rare cases.

Ninety hundredths (0.90) (academic / elite register)
gyharyzam or gyharzm

Core numeral = gyharī (value = 0/100)
Lower numeral = zam (value = 9/10)

Ninety hundredths (0.90) or Nine tenths (0.9) (neutral register)
gedm

Triple Digit Examples

One hundred fifty six thousandths (0.156) water
sähar geghymtunfera

Core numeral = geghym (value = 5/100)
Lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)
Upper numeral = fera (value = 6/1000)

Nine hundred twenty two thousandths (0.922) water
sähar gefirzāmkera

Core numeral = gefir (value = 2/100)
Lower numeral = zam (value = 9/10)
Upper numeral = kera (value = 2/1000)

Examples of Decimals Ten-Thousandths and Beyond

Remember that a set of numerals (core+lower+upper) is considered to be a numerical phrase. Unlike Earth conventions, this grouping continues into the decimal range. So for the number: one ten-thousandths (0.0001), it would be like (0.000,1) in Shikathi notation, a number of two numerical phrases.

One ten-thousandths (0.0001)
gezn harī

Phrase 1: core numeral = gezn (value = 1/10)
Phrase 2: Alternate Upper numeral = harī (value = 0/1000)

Twelve thousand four hundred twenty one hundred-thousandths (0.12421) (um… I think that’s how you say that in English)
gyzenvk firtuntlara

Phrase 1: core numeral = gyzen (value = 1/100)
Phrase 1: lower numeral = vek (value = 2/10)
Phrase 2: core numeral = fir (value = 2/100)
Phrase 2: lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)
Phrase 2: upper numeral = tlara (value = 4/1000)

Whole Numbers with Decimals

There’s not really much difference in how the numerals are put together. Numerals to the left of the decimal make up their own phrases as does numerals to the right.

One and five tenths (1.5)
zen gyghīm

Phrase 1: core numeral = zen (value = 1*1)
Phrase 2: core numeral = gyghīm (value = 5/10)

Three and fourteen thousand one hundred fifty nine hundred-thousandths (3.14159)
lor gedimghm bytunbara

Phrase 1: core numeral = lor (value 3*1)
Phrase 2: core numeral = dim (value 9/100)
Phrase 2: lower numeral = ghym (value 5/10)
Phrase 3: core numeral = bet (value = 4/100)
Phrase 3: lower numeral = tun (value = 1/10)
Phrase 3: upper numeral = bara (value = 1/1000)

Final Note About Decimal Numerical Phrases and Their Placement:

It's important to note that Shikathi numerical phrases on the decimal side are arranged in a completely reversed order compared to that of Earth standards.

For example if we were to directly translate the Shikathi version of 3.14159 back into our own system without taking this into account, lor (3) gedimghm (0.59) bytunbara (141) , we would get 3.59141 which is a totally incorrect translation.

When converting any Shikathi number into Earth standards, we have to remember to isolate the decimal phrases from the whole phrases. Once isolated, reverse the order of the decimal phrases and reposition the decimal. To identify the decimal phrases, look for the phrase that contains the "gy/ge" marker. Any phrase after that will also be considered a decimal phrase.

For example you stumble onto a Shikathi ship and you see this number: ghmhor firtuntylara lazāmgara gytae iāghymindra lorvekgara. What is it?

▼ Step 1: Decipher the phrases

▼ Step 2: Isolate the decimal phrases

▼ Step 3: Reverse the order of the decimal phrases (not the numerals)

▼ Step 4: Reposition the decimal based on Earth standards

[top]Fractions

First and foremost, Shikathi does not have a way to represent fractions numerically (read: Shikathi’s creator can’t think of a cool way to incorporate fractions using it's current numerical script not to mention that fractions hurt the creator’s head too much!) .

Although fractions can't be represented numerically, they are recognized in Shikathi society and may be written out. To do this, use the suffix -shpa affixed to a number to represent the denominator.

Background information: -shpa is an alternate Genitive ending used in the Old Shikathi case system.

Here are some examples:

Five tenths (5/10)
ghīm zenrānshpa (literally: five belonging to ten)

Fifteen hundredths (15/100)
zenghm harīshpa (fifteen belonging to one hundred)

Six thirteenths (6/13)
tae zenvēshpa (six belonging to thirteen)

Twenty four eightieths (24/80)
firky larānshpa (twenty-four belonging to eighty)

Ordinals

To create ordinal numbers in Shikathi, simply tag on the adjective marker -thī / -ðī to any number. All previous rules for putting together numbers apply.

For example:

zenthī = first
firthī = second
lorthī = third
...etc.

Some examples for larger numbers:

barīðī = hundredth
zen harīðī = thousandth
zen harykōðī = millionth
...etc.

Other adjectivized numbers exist that are not considered "ordinals" by English standards but are categorized in the same grammatical group by Shikathi standards. For example the word "half" is derived from the number geghm (0.5), and is the adjectivized number (for lack of a better term) geghimthī.

Other words like this include:

gelyrvēðī = one third (from gylorve = 0.33)
gēatunthī = one sixth (from geātn = 0.17)
gēaminthī = two thirds (from gēamīn = 0.67)
geghymvekthī = one forth / quartered (from geghimvyk = 0.25)
geghymventhī = three fourths / three-quartered (from geghimvn = 0.75)

This is an alternative way to represent some fractions however it's important to remember that these are adjectives. Unlike the number zen lorshpa (1/3) for example, gelyrvēðī is an adjective describing one third of something. Here's an example of the difference.

A third of the people are male.
drūmky gelyrvēðī drāgarōky.
person-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
syntactic
male-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.

vs.

One third is less than two thirds.
zen lorshpa vymomyn fir lyrshpākys. (literally: One of three is less of a collection than two of three.)
one three-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
mass-COMPComparative (comparison)
e.g. 'better'
-DIMDiminutive
a smaller, lesser, weaker etc. version
two three-GENGenitive (case)
possessive
-than.

It seems strange to turn a noun into an adjective just to turn it back into a noun again but this happens often in Shikathi. It happens with numbers too. In the case with ordinals, the meaning becomes "the X one" where "X" is the ordinal number. To nominalize any adjective, use the suffix -yth.

For example:

zen = number one > zenthī = first > zenyth = the first one
fir = number two > firthī = second > firyth = the second one
lor = number three > lorthī = third > loryth = the third one

Some examples for larger numbers:

barīyth = the hundredth one
zen harīyth = the thousandth one
zen harykōyth = the millionth one

Ordinals

In addition to being an adjective marker, -thī / -ðī doubles as an adverb marker. To tell the difference, rather than following the noun, adverbs will always follow the verbs they modify. Here is an example:

The first person walked in.
drūm zenthī benghin draetorakām.
syntactic
movement inwards-PASTPast tense (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-INTRIntransitive (valency)
has one argument

The person walked in first. (or) The person first walked in...
drūm benghin draetorakām zenthī.
person movement inwards-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-INTRIntransitive (valency)
has one argument
e.g. English '-ly'
.

You will see adverbialized decimals following the same pattern. These take on the meaning of something happening or operating at a certain percentage. You will hear this a lot on Shikathi starships and space stations. Here are some examples.

Only 30% of our shields are working.
sykätkus gelorthī īkrī tähraet akām.
syntactic
only stimulus MIDMiddle voice (valency)
subject is both agent and patient
.

Our shields are only working at 30% power.
sykätkus tähraet akām gelorthī īkrī.
shield stimulus MIDMiddle voice (valency)
subject is both agent and patient
e.g. English '-ly'
only

[top]Additional Uses of the Lower Class Numeral

The lower class numerals can be used by themselves without the core being present. They retain the value of x*1 and are used to identify specific parts of a series.

For example, earlier in this article, I identified various numerical phrases with "phrase 1, phrase 2, etc."

If we were to translate this into Shikathi, we could not use the core numerals and say: "pransoryton zen , pransoryton fir" as this would mean "one phrase, two phrases". Instead, Shikathi uses the lower numeral system "pransoryton tun, pransoryton vek" When doing this, it is common to affix the numerals to the word and subsequently shift the emphasis away from that syllable. And so we get "prānsorytontn, prānsorytonvk".

This is also seen on maps and star charts, especially when identifying planets of a star system. For example, Earth is in the Sol system. In Shikathi, this system and it's star is "Sorāna" from Proto-Shikathi "Zhu'uur" (modern: Sor-). From this we get the name of the planets:

Sorātn = Mercury (planet # 1)
Sorāvk = Venus (planet # 2)
Sorāve = Earth (planet # 3)
Sorāky = Mars (planet # 4)
Sorāghū = Jupiter (planet # 5)
Sorāmn = Saturn (planet # 6)
Sorāvn = Uranus (planet # 7)
Sorānr = Neptune (planet # 8)
Sorāzm = Pluto (yes they consider this a planet!) (planet # 9)

For any part of a series after the 9th, Shikathi will use nominalized ordinal numbers. Unlike the normal adjectival usage of ordinal numbers, these form a compound word with the original root.

Sorāzenrānyth (the tenth planet in the Sol system)
Sorāzentunyth (the eleventh planet in the Sol system)
Sorāzenvekyth (the twelfth planet in the Sol system)
Sorāzenyth (the thirteenth planet in the Sol system)

Another example of this construction can be seen in the name of the months. The Shikathi word for month is dymrāzhia (a period of nine moon-phases). And so we have:

dymrātn = January (month one)
dymrāvyk = February (month two)
dymrāve = March (month three)
dymrāky = April (month four)
dymrāghm = May (month five)
dymrāmn = June (month six)
dymrāvn = July (month seven)
dimrar (irregular) = August (month eight)
dymrāzm = September (month nine ... the final month of the Shikathi calendar)
dymrāzhynrānyth = October (the tenth month... Earth calendar)
dymrāzhyntunyth = November (the eleventh month)
dymrāzhynvekyth = December (the twelfth month)

Just like how cardinal numbers of the core class can become ordinals by tagging on the adjective marker -thī / -ðī, so too can cardinal numbers of the lower class. The difference is akin to the difference between first and primary or second vs. secondary. Remember that the lower class numeral when used by itself represents a specific part in a series. The adjective version of it indicates an order of magnitude, importance or value.

Note: As adjectives, these remain as separate words.

thorānalaet = generator
thorānalaetn = generator #1
thorānalaet tunthī = the primary generator

In contrast with the core numbers:

thorānalaet zen = one generator
thorānalaet zenthī = the first generator

Again, just like with the core number system, the lower class number system also has nominalized versions of its adjectives. And so we get:

tun = number 1 in a series > tunthī (primary) > tunyth (the primary one / the main one)
vek = number 2 in a series > vekthī (secondary) > vekyth (the secondary one)
= number 3 in a series > vēðī or vīðī (tertiary) > vēyth or vīyth (the tertiary one)
etc.

Remember that adverbs and adjectives are formed in the same way. The difference between them is their placement in a sentence. The meaning of the adverbialized lower class numeral corresponds to the English words: primarily, secondarily, etc. as opposed to firstly, secondly, etc. As with English, the Shikathi equivalent for "primarily" (tunthī) may also take on the meaning of "mainly", "for the most part", "essentially", etc.

The generator is primarily for the shields, but secondarily, it can power the engines.
thorānalaet sykätkudrik akām tunthī, thoranaet thoranālreb vekthī.
generator shield-for INTRIntransitive (valency)
has one argument
e.g. English '-ly'
, engine energize-GERGerund
verbal noun
-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
e.g. English '-ly'
.

In contrast with the core numbers:

The generator powers the shields first, and (then) the engines secondly.
thorānalaet sykätkus thorān lator zenthī, thoranaetpn firthī.
generator shield energy TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
e.g. English '-ly'
e.g. English '-ly'
.

[top] Lower Class Numerals as Serials

I'm not sure what this is officially called so let's just go with Serials. These are used to indicate a group within a series. In English we use any of the following expressions: one by one, one at a time, the first and then another, etc.

In Shikathi use the Lower Class Numeral and the suffix -tum (through) to express this type of series.

one by one / one at a time
tuntum

two by two / two at a time
vektum

three by three / three at a time
tum (or tum)

For any part of a series after nine by nine, Shikathi will use nominalized ordinal numbers with the suffix -tum.

ten at a time.
zenranithtum.

twenty at a time.
firranithtum.

In a sentence, it's possible to add the adverb marker -thī .

They went one at a time.
benghin indratorakāmky tuntumthī.

They went ten at a time.
benghin indratorakāmky zenrānythtumthī.

Nominal Serials (as subjects)

Unlike English, where serial idioms are always adverbial phrases, Shikathi serials can be used as subjects of the sentence instead of adverbs. Use the base (nominal) form of the serials in these cases. Compare the following two sentences.

They went one at a time.
benghin indratorakāmky tuntumthī.
movement VBZVerbaliser
converts N, ADJ etc into verb
.3MThird person masculine (person)
he/they
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-MIDMiddle voice (valency)
subject is both agent and patient
-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
e.g. English '-ly'

vs.

(nominal serial )

They went one at a time.
tuntum benghin torakām. (Note: no plural marker is necessary)
SUBSubject (argument).one-through movement VBZVerbaliser
converts N, ADJ etc into verb
.PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-MIDMiddle voice (valency)
subject is both agent and patient

Use the nominal serial as a subject of the sentence, if the subject has already been mentioned and/or is already understood by the context.

Nominal Serials (as objects)

The nominal serial is also used as the object of a sentence. Just like with the subject, this is only done if the object has already been mentioned or is already understood.

I bought three seeds. I planted them one by one.
gorplorāzmythkā sukina ūmtorlātr. tuntum pyshtrīn ūmtorlātr.
seed-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
.TRITrial (number)
three of something, number "three"
money VBZVerbaliser
converts N, ADJ etc into verb
.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments
| OBJObject (argument).one-through garden VBZVerbaliser
converts N, ADJ etc into verb
.1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech
-TRTransitive (valency)
has two arguments

[top]Expressions for Mathematical Operations

Here are some common expressions

zen zendrū vom ūmlātr.

vom latorys = to subtract
zen zensū vom ūmlatorys.
I subtract one from one.

vomthī lator = to multiply
zen zenpn vomthī ūmlātr.
I multiply one and one.

vomthī latorys = to divide
dim lordrō vomthi ūmlatorys.
I divide nine by three.

zhohorā lator = to divide (this also means "to divide" but is an older, not quite obsolete expression. It's based on the root word meaning "destruction" and "death")
dim lordrō zhohorā ūmlātr.
I divide nine by three. (literally: I destroy 9 with 3)

vomākthī ... -drū = added to (Shikathi may also use -rum 'by' instead of -drū)
zen vomākthī zendrū fir akām.
One added to one is two.

pyn (pn) = and
zen zenpn fir akām.
One and one is two.

vomakisthī ... -sū = subtractd from
zen vomakisthī zensū harī akām.
One subtracted from one is zero.

pintō = and not
zen zenpintō harī akām.
One and not one is zero.

vomthithī ... rum = multiplied by
zen vomthithī zenrum zen akām.
One multiplied by one is one.

zhohorāðī ... rum = divided by (unlike the verb, there is no alternative to this word)
dim zhohorāðī lorum lor akām.
Nine divided by three is three. (literally: Nine destroyed by three is three.)

[top]Misc Notes to Self

Confusing numbers

tae vek era = 964 > tevekiera (stressed syllable 'ie' diphthong)
tae vek kera = 262 > tevekera (just one 'k') (stressed syllable 'vek')
tae ve era = 963 > tevēiera / tevīiera / tevīera (stressed syllable 'ī' .. macron needed to indicate no diphthong) (possible: tevira)
tae ve kera = 263 > tevēkera / tevīkera (stressed syllable "ē" or "ī")  