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WAIT WAIT IT CHANGED
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no more rwoko. for future use now
This public article was written by ema|gtg, and last updated on 28 Jul 2019, 04:07.

[comments] Menu 1. Open and Closed Vowels 2. "Accusative", "Nominative" and "Ergative" Cases (Not exactly identified now. Temporary names, by the way) 3. Comparative Case 4. Instrumental-Comitative/Lative Case 5. Plural/Genitive Case 6. Negative/Abessive & Vocative 7. Multiple Case Occurrences 8. THE END Vowels have a syntactic role in Rwokoloofebian, not a semantic one. That means if happens one single change on its pronunciation, then its function changes. It's really simple, let's check out:

[top]Open and Closed Vowels

Hold on a second! First of all, we need to distinguish what is an "open" vowel and what is a "closed" vowel. What differs one from another is its sound: if it seems "thick" is closed and if it seems "thin" is open. Do you still don't get it? No problem, IPA will solve it.
Closed VowelOpen Vowel
a  /ɶ/ä  /a/
e  /e/ë  /ɛ/
i  /i/ï  //
o  /o/ö  /ɒ/
u  /u/
And /u/ doesn't vary but switch places with i in the next cases.

Vowels Classes: Closed and Open Vowels only represents a few cases. To construct another cases is necessary to have some variation between them. Let's see what kind of vowels classes do exist and what they do represent:
Cases (most complex > simplest)Vowels ClassesVowels TypesVowels Qualities
Nominativea, e, o, i
ã, ẽ, õ, ĩ
â, ê, ô, î
ClosedNone (PR)
Prelabialised (PS)
Iotation (FT)
Ergativeã, ẽ, õ, ĩ
ä, ë, ö, ï
â, ê, ô, î
Closed (PR, FT)
Open (PS)
Prelabialised (PR)
None (PS)
Iotation (FT)
Comparativeā, ē, ō, īOpenDouble + glottal stop
Instrumental-Comitative/Lativeá, é, ó, íOpenIotation
Plural/Genitiveä, ë, ö, ïOpenNone
Negative/Abessiveà, è, ò, ìOpenPrelabialised
Vocative-ù /u/NoneNone
Accusative/No case worda, e, o, i
Unchanged
See what they sound like in RKF Phonology section. And in the next contents, "Interpretation Level" means that if you can identify what case is by context or by the marker itself. Just for letting you aware.

[top]"Accusative", "Nominative" and "Ergative" Cases (Not exactly identified now. Temporary names, by the way)

Interpretation levelAccusativeNominativeErgative
Easy
Normal
Not that easy

The "Accusative" Case is the easiest one: nothing changes.
The second "easiest" is the "Nominative" Case: only the present tense remains unchanged.
And the last one is the "Ergative" Case, being the only case that is obligatory to change a vowel to modify its role, no matter what tense is. Know what is "Ergative" here! (Warning: WIP)
Note:These are the only cases which have an irregular grapheme: i. They are: (phoneme /u/) and î (phoneme /ju/). Both presents in Nominative and Ergative.

Syllabic Marker Position
Nominative & Ergative Case
Syllable PositionUsually are atUsually aren't at
First
Last
Any
Why?NOM: always the last word;
ERG: always the first word.

What gets changed?
Here is an example of the entire process (on a table):
Vowel Mutation Table
Case/TensePastPresentFuture
Accusative---
NominativePrelabialised(w)-Iotationised(j)
ErgativeOpened FormPrelabialised(w)Iotationised(j)

Case Application Sample
Word SampleKek (Bird)
Case/TensePastPresentFutureWhat it marks?
AccusativeKek
to/for/on/by/the/a bird
Patient (unmarked)
NominativeKẽk
(bird was/did)
Kek
(bird is/do)
Kêk
(bird will be/do)
Agent (partially-marked)
ErgativeKëk
(that bird was/did)
Kẽk
(that bird is/do)
Kêk
(that bird will be/do)
"Second Agent" (marked)
In Nominative and Ergative it can be "a" or "the" bird.

A sentence sample with the 3 cases together
Rwokoloofebian sampleKëk woog kat neez bõx.
Parts of SpeechBird-PS-ERG to make nest-ACC to see 1SG-PS-NOM
TranslationI saw the/a nest that the/a bird made (that is not really necessary)


[top]Comparative Case

Interpretation levelComparative
Easy
Normal
Not that easy

The only case that uses particles to give meaning.
They are 3: Jet, nin and nor (Jeninor Class).
It's not really difficult, it's just the particles that confuse a bit.
Note: The vowel class used is: ā, ē, ō, ī (open) and to pronounce them well, is necessary to stop breath a little bit (swallow air) and so speak the same vowel quickly.

Syllabic Marker Position
Comparative Case
Syllable PositionUsually is atUsually isn't at
First
Last
Any
Why? Can be in any position,
but is easier to speak at first

Case Application Sample
ParticleParticle MeaningKēkubil (fruit)Declencion Meaning
JetMore ____ than...Kēkubil-jetMore fruity/fruitful than...
NinLess ____ than...Kēkubil-ninLess fruity/fruitful than...
Nor____-like/shapedKēkubil-norSimilar to fruit/Fruit-like
No ParticleLike to/as/a/the ___KēkubilLike froo-oo-oot


[top]Instrumental-Comitative/Lative Case

Interpretation levelInstrumental-ComitativeLative
Easy
Normal
Not that easy

Starting with the easiest, the Instrumental-Comitative case only shows a bond/company between two entities or something used as a tool. It's really simple, but the declined word must be next to the subject.
Instrumental-Comitative Sample:
- Morã néwor? (Who were you with?)
- Kék böbõx (I was with my bird)
In the other hand, the Lative case is very dependent on the subject (Nominative) and thus its meaning changes when the tense changes. Although the meanings being simple for Past and Future, for Present is quite uncommon: it's not a gerund but it's a connection between Past and Future. The true gerund/progressive is represented by a partial reduplication of the verb.
The exact meaning is somewhat between "been hurry when switching places: that one you left and that one you will arrive".

Syllabic Marker Position
Instrumental-Comitative Case
Syllable PositionUsually is atUsually isn't at
First
Last
Any
Why? To avoid misunderstandings

Lative Case
Syllable PositionUsually is atUsually isn't at
First
Last
Any
Why? To avoid misunderstandings

Case Application Sample
Word SampleNekat (Home) and Box (1SG, ACC)
TenseLative CaseTranslation
NOM. PastNekát BõxI went home
NOM. PresentNekát BoxI was home and now
I'm going to another spot
NOM. FutureNekát BôxI will go home


[top]Plural/Genitive Case

Interpretation levelPluralGenitive
Easy
Normal
Not that easy

I think everybody knows what means plural and genitive, but the real issue here is the third meaning that may be hidden in this form: Past Ergative. Usually Past Ergative appears only in long sentences, so this makes easier to identify which is what. And the other route is obviously to analyse the context itself.

Syllabic Marker Position
Plural
Syllable PositionUsually is atUsually isn't at
First
Last
Any
Why? To avoid misunderstandings

Genitive Case
Syllable PositionUsually is atUsually isn't at
First
Last
Any
Why? To avoid misunderstandings

Case Application Sample
CaseRal (sun)
PluralRäl (suns/common stars)
GenitiveRäl (sun's)
Past ErgativeRäl (that the sun did/was)


[top]Negative/Abessive & Vocative

Interpretation levelNegative/AbessiveVocative
Easy
Normal
Not that easy

Finally, the last cases!
Ok, Negative/Abessive is about a negative version of something or is a lack/absence of something as well. With pretty similar meanings, it's not hard to understand what the word wants to express.
And the last but indeed the least, the vocative case only denotes a calling/summoning. Also, it has the only true functional affix in RKF.

Syllabic Marker Position
Negative/Abessive
Syllable PositionUsually is atUsually isn't at
First
Last
Any
Why? There's no other similar case marker

Vocative
Syllable PositionUsually is atUsually isn't at
First
Last
Any
Why? The only actual suffix

Case Application Sample
CaseWor (Human)
Negative/AbessiveWòr (non-human/without humanity)
VocativeWorù! (Oh humanity!/My people!)


[top]Multiple Case Occurrences

Another use to the Vocative suffix is for to indicate when a word is in more than one case of the same type, e.g. plural, genitive and Past Ergative in one single word. However, this method it's not much effective when it's a monosyllabic word and thus cannot be possible to identificate it only using this suffix, so there are some particles that can help with it: the same particles used in the Comparative case :)
Those are: jet and nor, but not nin.
Jet and Nor are used to represent up to more than 2 different cases of different types and they should be used after the -ù suffix and they act as a fake word to put them in a desired case marker. It's possible to use both particles at the same time.
Also, long words may not need to use the particles because they already may have enough space inside them to place the case markers. But use them is entirely optional.

Cases UsedSampleTranslation
No caseSetHair
1 caseSètHairless/bald
2 cases (same type)Sëtùof the hairs
2 cases or moreSētù-jet-nòrMore hairless than...
Long wordKëkubìlùof the non-fruits


[top]THE END

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