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This public article was written by Jadyndar on 17 May 2020, 08:42.
3. The PekrïfStress assignment in Gomain can be considered to take place in two distinct stages: the root stage and the word stage, in that order. At the root stage, the syllable property which most heavily influences the placement of stress is weight. For the purposes of this discussion, a syllable’s weight can most relevantly be measured in morae, for the most part as they are typically understood: the syllable onset generally does not count as a mora, while most vowel monophthongs count as one mora, and diphthongs count as two. Ë and ŕ are considered weak nuclei, and only count as a single mora if they are the nuclei of both of the root’s first two syllables. The coda’s contribution to syllable weight depends on two main factors: the number of consonants it contains and the length of the following syllable’s onset. Only codas consisting of more than one consonant count as a mora, but a simple coda following a monophthong can parasitically “borrow” the first consonant of a following complex onset to be treated as a complex coda and thus count as a mora. A syllable may therefore comprise up to three morae, with the permissible rime types being: V, VV, VC, VVC, and VCC. For the remainder of this discussion, monomoraic syllables will be called “light”, bimoraic syllables “heavy”, and trimoraic syllables “superheavy”. Within roots (along with compounds, which also participate in this stage), primary stress is preferentially assigned to the second syllable, as long as at least one of the first two syllables is heavy or superheavy. If the root’s first two syllables are both light, stress is assigned to the first syllable.
Examples (11)–(13) demonstrate the effects of these root-level rules. In (11a-b), the nucleus of the root’s first syllable is weak, resulting in that syllable having no morae and effectively being extrametrical. Examples (12a-c) show stress being assigned to the second syllable when it is heavy or superheavy: the following complex onset in (12b) is parasitized by the simple coda to form a superheavy syllable, while the stress in (12c) is on an inherently superheavy syllable. Finally, (13) shows that stress prefers the second syllable; all three sylables in this word are heavy.
(11a) ŕtörķ [r̩.ˈtɔrx] ‘prison’
(b) hëwumbë [hə.ˈwum.bə] ‘amphibrachic meter’
(12a) sarei [sɑ.ˈrej] ‘short’
(b) bleisaŋglu [blej.ˈsɑŋ.glu] ‘history’
(c) ölfarķ [ɔl.ˈfɑrx] ‘gulf’
(13) moiskoion [moj.ˈskoj.on] ‘marketplace’
At the word stage of stress assignment, the root’s stress position is maintained as long as it is within the first three syllables of the word. If inflectional or derivational prefixes are present, and they result in the root’s stress position falling after the word’s third syllable, the primary stress shifts two syllables to the left, leaving a secondary stress in its former position (and every second syllable afterwards). Example (14) demonstrates these word-level stress rules; because the stress on the root (ķätčë) falls on the word’s fourth syllable, it shifts to the second syllable, and secondary stresses fall on the remaining even-numbered syllables.
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee.EPEpicene gender (gender)
mixed or indeterminate (e.g. singular they)-PRIVUnknown code-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
cause an action to occur, force another argument to act-knot-REFLReflexive (valency)
argument acts on itself-PSTPast (tense)
action occurred before moment of speech.ACTActive voice (valency, volition)
the subject acts, voluntarily-POTPotential (mood)
likely events, ability-QInterrogative
Were they able to untie themselves?
Where stress is irregular, the vowel of the stressed syllable is marked with an acute accent; this accent is written above the dieresis that marks lax vowels. Irregularly stressed diphthongs have an acute accent on the first vowel letter. Nasalized vowels rarely receive stress in unpredictable ways, but when they do, the acute accent is written above the tilde, such as in ebĩ́ ‘cry’. Likewise, those few syllabic rhotics that receive unpredictable stress are written with a double acute accent: r̋.