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Allagusugu Dialect
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新城島方言
This public article was written by StrawberryMilk, and last updated on 22 Apr 2020, 19:39.

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Allagusugu Dialect (新城島方言, allagusugushimma puang-ngyang) is a dialect of Mikyoan spoken on the islands which make up Allagusugu county. It is considered part of the Central Mikyoan Dialects and it is largely influenced by American English, Tagalog, and Korean due to the large number of foreign expats who live in the county. Due to the US military presence in Allagusugu, the dialect includes a large number of American English loanwords, calques, and phrases in everyday use.

Features

Phonology

Vowels

→ /ɛ̈/ is pronounced as [æ], similar to Medieval Mikyoan
→ /ɯ̞ᵝ/ is pronounced as [u]
→ Vowels in closed syllables become reduced:
⮡ /ä/ and /ɛ̈/ shift to [ɐ], ex: 행팝 (cricket, chiefly Central Mikyoan), [hɛŋpap̚] → [hɐŋpɐp̚]
⮡ /e̞/ and /ʌ/ shift to [ə], ex: 챔템 (dragonfly, chiefly Central Mikyoan) [t͡ɕʰɛ̈m.tʰe̞m] → [t͡ɕəm.təm], ex: 성섕 (先生, teacher), [sʰʌŋ.ɕʰjɛ̈ŋ] → [sɵŋ.ɕəŋ]
⮡ /i/ shifts to [ɪ], ex: 힌나 (花, flower), [çin.nä] → [hɪna]
⮡ /o̞/ shifts to [ɔ], ex: 톨붓 (tollbooth), [tʰo̞ɭ.bɯ̞ᵝs] → [tɔl.bʊh]
⮡ /ɯ̞ᵝ/ shifts to [ʊ], ex: 마퉁 (馬桶, toilet), [mä.tʰɯ̞ᵝŋ] → [ma.tʊŋ]

Consonants

→ /ɕ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ/ are most commonly shifted to [ʃ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ], especially among L2 speakers
→ /t/ and /d/, when followed by /j/ or /i/, are pronounced as [t͡ʃ] and [d͡ʒ] respectively
→ Coda /t/ and /d/ <ㄷ> are glotalized in coda positions, ex: 시가렏 (cigarette), [ɕigäɾe̞t̚] → [ʃi(ɰ)aɾəʔ]
→ /d/ and /ɾ/ are commonly confused or used in free variation by many speakers, ex: 라마단 (ramadan). [ɾämädän] → [damadɐn~ɾamaɾɐn~damaɾɐn~ɾamadɐn]
→ /x/ is always pronounced as [h] and is frequently omitted in speech, ex: 미혹 (美學, aesthetics), [me̞i̯xo̞k̚] → [mei̯(h)ɔk̚]
→ /k/ is commonly pronounced as [k͡x] in onset positions and as [x] intervocalically, where it may also be omitted or simplified as [h], ex: 코코넏 (coconut), [ko̞ko̞nʌt̚] → [k͡xo(x~h)onəʔ]
→ /g/ is commonly weakened to [ɰ] intervocalically or omitted entirely, ex: 핟다구 (corndog), [xät̚dägɯ̞ᵝ] → [hɐʔda(ɰ)u]
→ /ɭ/ is simplified to [l], however, [ɫ] is becoming increasingly common, especially on the Southern Island of Allagusugu
→ /ts/ is realized as [s.s] intervocalically and as [s] in coda and onset positions, ex: 싸쌍 (sound of rustling), [t͡sät͡säŋ] → [sas.sɐŋ]

Stress and Intonation

Allagusugu Dialect, similar to other Central Mikyoan Dialects, retains the Tone from Medieval Mikyoan in some aspects. In Allagusugu Dialect, this is done through stress corresponding to pitch accent.

The Allagusugu Pitch System is nearly identical to the Gullu City Dialect Pitch System, as it places a high pitch on a stressed syllable. In Allagusugu and in Gullu, the stressed syllable is typically the second to last syllable, with some exceptions. These exceptions include monosyllabic words, which have no stressed syllable, and inflected verbs (such as questions and progressive verbs,) wherein the stress is moved to the final syllable of the word rather than the penultimate syllable of the root verb.

- 마西瓜가食버 - you eat watermelon [ˈséí̯(ɰ)wa ga ˈtábə] H-L L L-H 西瓜가食베이마要어 - you want to eat watermelon [ˈséí̯(ɰ)wa ga tabəʃip̚ˈpə́] H-L L L-L-L-H 西瓜가食베이마要어여? - do you want to eat watermelon? [ˈséí̯(ɰ)wa ga tabəʃip̚pəˈjə́] H-L L L-L-L-L-H 마西瓜가食베이마가 - you will eat watermelon [ˈséí̯(ɰ)wa ga tabə́ˈ(ɰ)a] H-L L L-L-H 마西瓜가食베이마要어가 - you will want to eat watermelon [ˈséí̯(ɰ)wa ga tabəʃip̚pəˈ(ɰ)a] H-L L L-L-L-H 마西瓜가食베이마要어가야? - will you want to eat watermelon? [ˈséí̯(ɰ)wa ga tabəʃip̚pə(ɰ)aˈjá] - H-L L L-L-L-L-H
Grammar Questions in Allagusugu Dialect are distinguished on whether the question is polar or not, a feature which dates back to Medieval Mikyoan but has since been lost in Standard Mikyoan At the end of an interrogative statement, the speaker will either use ~얘, ~야, or ~여 to distinguish that the question is polar. ~얘 is used in a verb containing ㅔ/ㅐ/ㅣvowels in the stem, ~야 is used in a verb containing ㅏ in the stem, and ~여 is used in a verb containing ㅓ/ㅗ/ㅜ vowels in the stem. ~얘메일루, ~야메일루 and ~여메일루 can be used to ask a question politely. At the end of an interrogative statement, the speaker can also use ~내, ~나, or ~너 to distinguish that the question is not polar. ~내 is used in a verb containing ㅔ/ㅐ/ㅣvowels in the stem, ~나 is used in a verb containing ㅏ in the stem, and ~너 is used in a verb containing ㅓ/ㅗ/ㅜ vowels in the stem. ~내메일루, ~나메일루, and ~너메일루 can be used to ask a question politely.
Examples: - 구場(메이)居얘? - gujong(-mei) eiyae? - "are you here?" [ˈgúd͡ʒɔŋ-(mei̯) ei̯yæ] - 구場(메이)何故居냬? - gujong(-mei) nindei einae? - "why are you here?" [ˈgúd͡ʒɔŋ-(mei̯) ˈnɪ́ndei̯ ei̯næ] 가場(메이)来시싸여? - gajong(-mei) gushitsayeo? - "did you come from there?" [ˈgád͡ʒɔŋ(-mei̯) guʃissaˈjʌ] 何處(메이)来시싸너? - eiduku(-mei) gushitsaneo? - "where did you come from?" [ei̯ˈdúxu(-mei̯) guʃissaˈnʌ]
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