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Ancient-Mawic grammar II.
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Word order, Adjectives, Nouns, Verbs
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 14 Mar 2022, 14:13.

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Menu 1. fáthãgün kinü - Fáthãgün kinü - Word order 2. gwánindágü - Gwánindágü - Nouns 3. gwánindágin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Gwánindágin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Noun affixation order 4. áçgü - Áçgü - Possession 5. gimgwá - Gimgwá - Number 6. kütüáq - Kütüáq - Noun cases 7. Adpositions 8. rinkekáq - Rinkekáq - Alienablity 9. keşüéhindá - Keşüéhindá - Pronouns 10. Personal pronouns 11. Reflexive pronouns 12. Reciprocal construction 13. sezkindág - Sezkindág - Adjectives 14. Comparative and superlative forms 15. gimgwág - Gimgwágü - Numerals 16. eyiŋgügü- Eyiŋgügü - Verbs 17. eyiŋgügin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Eyiŋgügin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Verb affixation order 18. ḑejgwá - ḑejgwá - Evidentiality 19. ebgü - Ebgü - Aspect 20. twó - Twó - Tenses 21. úgu - Úgu - Mood 22. táwgü - Táwgü - Negation 23. Interrogative phrases 24. Yes/no questions 25. Complicated questions

máwa-n nlẽkingwá - Máwa-n nlẽkingwá - Ancient-Mawic grammar


Other parts of the  Ancient-Mawic grammar series:
Ancient-Mawic grammar I.
Ancient-Mawic script (Sãgwá)
History of the Mawic peoples

[edit] [top]fáthãgün kinü - Fáthãgün kinü - Word order

The basic word order of AWM is SOV, but because of the case system it can be switched up to put emphasis on different words.

SOV: Basic
meqzü ááşak ŋgẽ
Meqzü ááşak ŋgẽ.
cat-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
bird-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
eat.PREPresent.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The cat eats the bird.

VSO: emphasis on the verb
ŋgẽmeqzü ááşak
ŋgẽ meqzü ááşak .
eat.PREPresent.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'
cat-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
bird-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient

The cat eats the bird.

OSV: emphasis on the object
ááşak meqzü ŋgẽ
Ááşak meqzü ŋgẽ.
bird-ACCAccusative (case)
TRANS direct object; patient
cat-NOMNominative (case)
TRANS subject, INTR argument
eat.PREPresent.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
'interrupted or incomplete'

The cat eats the bird.

Determiners, numerals, Interrogative pronouns always come before the noun.

ké qũ
Ké qũ.
This man.

yú sed-ü
Yú sed-ü.
Two knifes.

ses du
Ses du?
Who are you?

Relative pronouns, adjectives, adpositions come after the noun.

qũ kízes fát
Qũ, kízes fát.
The man who talks.

gwübün töhtáh-ad
Gwübün töhtáhad.
Under the water.

[edit] [top]gwánindágü - Gwánindágü - Nouns


[edit] [top]gwánindágin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Gwánindágin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Noun affixation order


PosessorNounNumberCase suffix(es)
-1012
úb-áç-g-f
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
kingPLPlural (number)
more than one/few
DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location


ün-áç-agif
ünáçagif
1SFirst person singular (person)
speaker, signer, etc.; I
.POSSPossessive (case)
owns, has
-king-PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
-DATDative (case)
indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

/yna:t͡ʃagif/
to my kings

[edit] [top]áçgü - Áçgü - Possession


In AWM possession of a noun can be expressed by using genitive case or by using possessive prefixes.

person/numberSGSingular (number)
one countable entity
DUDual (number)
two
PLPlural (number)
more than one/few
1First person (person)
speaker, signer, etc; I
u/ü(n)-ubyun/übyün-ubgun/übgün-
2Second person (person)
addressee (you)
dun/dün-düyün/duyun-dügün/dugun-
3Third person (person)
neither speaker nor addressee
tün/tun-tüyün/tuyun-tügün/tugun-


[edit] [top]gimgwá - Gimgwá - Number


AWM has three number distinctions; singular (unmarked), dual (-y), and plural (-g). As you could see at the previous example, the number affix comes right after the noun. If the noun ends with a consonant, we must put the last vowel of the word right before the number suffix to make the pronanciation easier (epenthetic vowel), like at: áç - áç (king) becomes áçag - áçag kings. This is called in AWM üsönḑgáw eyádí - üsönḑgáw eyádí, "auxiliary vowel".

[edit] [top]kütüáq - Kütüáq - Noun cases


AWM has 9 noun cases that are expressed through affixation. The nine cases are:
  • Nominative (-u/ü if the noun ends with a vowel, it's unmarked) Marks the subject of the sentence.


  • kú meqz-ü.
    Kú meqz-ü.
    that cat.NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument

    That (is a) cat.

  • Accusative (-k) - marks the direct object, patient.


  • u-dú meqz-ek.
    U-dú meqz-ek.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -have.ALAlienable (possession)
    thing that can be gained or lost
    cat-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    I have (a) cat.

  • Genitive (-on/ön/n) - marks posession, the NOUN's often marks origin and helps express spatial relationships.


  • meqz-ön füf-ü.
    Meqz-ön füf-ü.
    cat-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    mouse-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument

    The cat's mouse.

    bardű-n qũ.
    Bardű-n qũ.
    town-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    man.NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument

    Man from/of the town.

    kájü-n fa(-d).
    Kájü-n fa(-d).
    house-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    top-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    (On) the top of the house.

  • Dative (-f) - (give/go) to the NOUN


  • meqz-ef gwís-ik üb-éd.
    Meqz-ef gwís-ik üb-éd.
    cat-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    fish-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -give.NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    .IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'

    I give a fish to the cat.

    qũ bardű-f gwí.
    Qũ bardű-f gwí.
    man.NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    town-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    go.NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    .IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'

    The man goes to the town.

  • Locative (-d) - at, in, on the NOUN


  • meqz-ü sẽgwá-d sẽ.
    Meqz-ü sẽgwá-d sẽ.
    cat-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    couch-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    lie.NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    .IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'

    The cat lies on/at the couch.

    meqz-ü bökü-d.
    Meqz-ü bökü-d.
    cat-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    here-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    The cat is here.

  • Ablative (-sin/son) - from/out of/by/through the NOUN


  • meqz-ü gwís-ik qwú-zon mẽt-üt.
    Meqz-ü gwís-ik qwú-zon mẽt-üt.
    cat-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    fish-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    girl-ABLAblative (case)
    away from
    get-PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    -PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    The cat got a fish from the girl.

    qwú bardű-zin çégü.
    Qwú bardű-zin çégü.
    girl.NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    town-ABLAblative (case)
    away from
    come_from
    The girl is from the city

    kájü sek-sin íhtü-wöt.
    Kájü sek-sin íhtü-wöt.
    house.NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    stone-ABLAblative (case)
    away from
    build-PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    -PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    The house was made of stone.

  • Istrumental-comitative (-s) - with the NOUN


  • qwú-s bardű-f übyi-gwí-wöt.
    Qwú-s bardű-f übyi-gwí-wöt.
    girl-INSTCInstrumental-comitative (case)
    'with' (instrument and/or company)
    town-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    1DFirst person dual (person)
    we two (inclusive or exclusive)
    -go-PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    -PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    We went to the town with the girl.

    sãwgwá-k çwëysã-s ü-sã-wöt.
    Sãwgwá-k çwëysã-s ü-sã-wöt.
    sculpture-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    chisel-INSTCInstrumental-comitative (case)
    'with' (instrument and/or company)
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -carve-PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    -PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    I carved a sculpture with a chisel.

    AWM uses ergative-absolutive construction for unintentional acts. (?)

  • Absolutive (unmarked) - the core argument of the intransative verb
  • Ergative (-gwó/gwő) - the agent of the transative verbby the NOUN


  • Let's look at these sentences:

    Intransative:
    meqzü fësgü
    Meqzü fësgü.
    cat-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    sleep.PREPresent-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing

    The cat is sleeping.

    Transative:
    meqzü zduk fút töhöf
    Meqzü zduk fút töhöf.
    cat-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    pot-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    push-PASPast
    action occurred before moment of speech
    down-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

    The cat pushed off the pot. (Because he's an asshole.)

    In this case we used the Nominative-Accusative system, to show the cat pushed off the pot intentionally. We marked the agent with the nominative: in both cases.

    meqz höfüt
    Meqz höfüt.
    cat.ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    fall-PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    -PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    The cat fell.

    You can see here, the core argument (the cat) is unmarked.

    meqzgwő zdu fút töhöf
    Meqzgwő zdu fút töhöf.
    cat-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    pot-ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    push-PASPast
    action occurred before moment of speech
    down-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

    The cat pushed off the pot. (But he did it accidently.)
    Because of the case marking, we can play with the word order, to put more emphasis on the object (the pot) of the sentence.
    zdu meqzgwő fút töhöf
    Zdu meqzgwő fút töhöf.
    pot-ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    cat-ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    push-PASPast
    action occurred before moment of speech
    down-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

    The pot was pushed off by the cat. (The meaning is the same.)

    A quick overview to the case system: conjugations of the word "meqz" (cat)
    SGSingular (number)
    one countable entity
    DUDual (number)
    two
    PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    meqz-ü
    meqz-ü
    meqz-e
    meqz-e
    meqz-e
    meqz-e
    ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    meqz-ek
    meqz-ek
    meqz-eyik
    meqz-eyik
    meqz-egik
    meqz-egik
    ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    meqz
    meqz
    meqz-ey
    meqz-ey
    meqz-eg
    meqz-eg
    ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    meqz-egwő
    meqz-egwő
    meqz-eyigwő
    meqz-eyigwő
    meqz-egigwő
    meqz-egigwő
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    meqz-ön
    meqz-ön
    meqz-eyön
    meqz-eyön
    meqz-egön
    meqz-egön
    DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    meqz-ef
    meqz-ef
    meqz-eyif
    meqz-eyif
    meqz-egif
    meqz-egif
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    meqz-ed
    meqz-ed
    meqz-eyid
    meqz-eyid
    meqz-egid
    meqz-egid
    ABLAblative (case)
    away from
    meqz-ezin
    meqz-ezin
    meqz-eyizin
    meqz-eyizin
    meqz-egizin
    meqz-egizin
    INSTCInstrumental-comitative (case)
    'with' (instrument and/or company)
    meqz-es
    meqz-es
    meqz-eyis
    meqz-eyis
    meqz-egis
    meqz-egis


    [edit] [top]Adpositions


    To express more accurate spatial and temporal relationships, AWM uses adpositions, like under, above, next to, in, out, ect... combined with noun cases. Adpositions come after the noun.

    ümégü thíyön töhtáhad
    Ümégü thíyön töhtáhad.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -sit-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    .PRESPresent tense (tense)
    current
    tree-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    under-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    I'm sitting under the tree

    ümégü thíyön -d
    Ümégü thíyön d.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -sit-PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing
    .PRESPresent tense (tense)
    current
    tree-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    on-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    I'm sitting on the tree

    bardű-f nákü-n -d ü-gwí-wöt.
    Bardű-f nákü-n -d ü-gwí-wöt.
    town-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    horse-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    on-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -go-PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    -PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    I went to the city on a horse.

    ááşagü thíyön bethád
    Ááşagü thíyön bethád
    bird-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    tree-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    above-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    fly.PREPresent.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'

    The birds fly above the tree

    ügwí faebön töhtáhaf
    Ügwí faebön töhtáhaf.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -go roof-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    under-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location

    I go (to)under the roof.

    ükeçü faebön töhtáhazin
    Ükeçü faebön töhtáhazin.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -come roof-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    under-ABLAblative (case)
    away from

    I come from under the roof.

    [edit] [top]rinkekáq - Rinkekáq - Alienablity


    AWM distingueshes alienable and inalienable nouns. Inalienable nouns can not be used "on their own". We must include the posessor of the noun in the sentence. If we talk about something in genereal, the posessors are the following:

    - man in general, like:
    qũn şĩĩ - The man's/one's luck

    kwúq - child for parents, like:
    kwúqon mád - The child's mother

    áĩgü - something for non living things' components
    áĩgün çĩgü - Something's door

    There are two different verbs for owning inalienable and alienable nouns. (bear/wear/ect...) is used for posessing alienable nouns. Thã (be part of sth/member/ect...) is used for inalienable nouns. For example:

    u nákük
    U nákük.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -have.ALAlienable (possession)
    thing that can be gained or lost
    horse-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    I have a horse.

    üthã şúk küsk
    Üthã şúk küsk.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -have.INALInalienable (possesson)
    thing that can't be gained or lost
    hair-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    long-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    I have long hair.

    But both uses the same genitive case suffixes.

    ünnákü
    Ünnákü
    my horse

    unşú
    Unşú
    my hair

    Inalienable nouns are usually words for bodyparts, social relationships, ranks, names, feelings, states, components of bigger things, things, that can not be given to others.
    There are words, that are both alienable, and inalienable. These words have multiple meanings, like - (woman/wife). If it's used as woman it's alienable, but if it's used as wife, it's inalienable.

    [edit] [top]keşüéhindá - Keşüéhindá - Pronouns

    In  Ancient-Mawic pronouns behave in a similar the same way as nouns. They can have case and number suffixes.

    utut áĩ-lekü-n drgówuguk
    Utut áĩlekün drgówuguk.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -find-PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    somebody-GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    clothes-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    I found somebody's clothes.

    sesk düdetüt
    Sesk düdetüt?
    what.INTIntelligent (gender/class)
    Sentient beings
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -see-PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    What did you see?

    detüt úbuk
    Detüt úbuk.
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .see-PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    He saw me.

    kízesgik detüt, aleküf fát-üt
    Kízesgik detüt, aleküf fátüt.
    what.RELRelative-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .see-PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    | nobody-DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    say-PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    .PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech

    What he saw, he never told anyone.

    [edit] [top]Personal pronouns


    Person,Number/caseNOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    /ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    ABLAblative (case)
    away from
    ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    úbúbkúbonbúflúbtohúbsõúbgów
    1DFirst person dual (person)
    we two (inclusive or exclusive)
    úbyúbyúgúbyũúbyúflúbyúthoúbyúzõúbyúgwó
    1PFirst person plural (person)
    we (inclusive or exclusive)
    úbgbúggúbgonbúgflbúgtohúbgõzbúggów


    Person,Number/caseNOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    /ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    ABLAblative (case)
    away from
    ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    dudükduondüfldüthedüsẽdügwő
    2DSecond person dual (person)
    addressee (you two)
    düydüyűgdüyöndüyűfldüyűthödüyűzãdüyűgwő
    2PSecond person plural (person)
    addressee (plural)
    dügdüggdügöndügfldügtehdügzẽdüggőw


    Person,Number/caseNOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    /ABSAbsolutive (case)
    TRANS object, INTR argument
    ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    DATDative (case)
    indirect object; recipient, beneficiary, location
    LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc
    ABLAblative (case)
    away from
    ERGErgative (case)
    TRANS subject; agent
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    tüqtüqktükẽtüqfltüqtáhtüqsintüqgéw
    3DThird person dual (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee (they two)
    tüqytüqyígtüqyíẽtüqyífltüqyíthátüqyízintüqyígwé
    3PThird person plural (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee, they/them
    tügtüggtügẽtügfltügtáhtügzintüggéw


    [edit] [top]Reflexive pronouns


    There are similar reflexive pronouns in  Ancient-Mawic, as they are in english like myself, yourself, himself... Úboŋk comes from  Proto-Mawo-Caláic 'úbonúbkó (1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    -1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    ).

    detü úboŋk detüötöd
    Detü úboŋk detüötöd.
    see 1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -GENGenitive (case)
    possessive
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    mirror-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    Lit.: (I) see my me in the mirror. / I see myself in the mirror.

    When you use this format, it is not necessary to mark the subject in the verb, because it is already there in úboŋk.

    duŋk - duŋk - yourself
    tüqüŋk - tüqüŋk - him/herself
    kéŋk/kúŋk - kéŋk/kúŋk - itself

    An other way to express the same thing is to use this formula:

    üdetü úbok detüötöd
    Üdetü úbok detüötöd.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -see 1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    mirror-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    Lit.: I see me in the mirror. / I see myself in the mirror.

    [edit] [top]Reciprocal construction


    tuygú üksük.
    Tuygú üksük.
    3DThird person dual (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee (they two)
    -hate.NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    .IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    each_other-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    They (dual) hate each other.

    [edit] [top]sezkindág - Sezkindág - Adjectives

    Adjectives are always come after the marked noun. They also agree in number and case.

    gjötrü öndősü
    Gjötrü öndősü.
    fruit-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    sweet-NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument

    Sweet fruit.

    gjötrögü öndősögü
    Gjötrögü öndősögü.
    fruit-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    sweet-PLPlural (number)
    more than one/few
    -NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument

    Sweet fruits.

    [edit] [top]Comparative and superlative forms


    We create comparative adjectives by adding f suffix.

    nle - nle - good

    nlef - nlef - better

    ekwãg - ekwãg - high/tall

    ekwãgãf - ekwãgãf - higher/taller

    ñút - ñút - narrow

    ñútuf - ñútuf - narrower

    Superlative forms are trickier. If the last vowel is a front vowel, you add fẽeh. If it's a back vowel, you add fomoh.

    nlefẽeh - nlefẽeh - best

    ekwãgãfẽeh - ekwãgãfẽeh - highest/tallest

    ñútfomoh - ñútfomoh - narrowest

    Just like in English, there are some irregular adjectives:

    güs - güs - bad

    güsüf - güsüf - bader

    güsfẽeh - güsfẽeh - badest

    These are incorrect examples. The right words are:

    guzof - worse

    guzõfoh - worst

    [edit] [top]gimgwág - Gimgwágü - Numerals


    AWM uses base 6 numeral system. The numbers from one to six are.

    1-6
    Rule Just simple numbers (A)
    Decimal valueEnglishAWMAWM numerals
    1oneüs1
    2two2
    3threetüŋg3
    4fourgwũ4
    5five5
    6sixşwĩ6
    7-11
    Rule A "and" 6
    Decimal valueEnglishAWMAWM numerals
    7sevenüs ú şwĩ1ú6
    8eightyú ú şwĩ2ú6
    9ninetüŋg ú şwĩ3ú6
    10tengwũ ú şwĩ4ú6
    11elevensĩ ú şwĩ5ú6
    12-35
    Rule A "and" B "times" 6
    12twelveyú şwĩ-zin26-zin
    13thirteenüs ú yú şwĩ-zin1ú26-zin
    14thirteenyú ú yú şwĩ-zin2ú26-zin
    ...
    18eightteentüŋg şwĩ-zin36-zin
    24twenty fourgwũ şwĩ-zin46-zin
    30thirtysĩ şwĩ-zin56-zin
    36-42
    Rule A "and" 36
    36thirty sixşedg7
    37thirty sevenüs ú şedg1ú7
    38thirty eightyú ú şedg2ú7
    43-216
    Rule A "and" B "times" 6 "and" 36
    43fourty threeüs ú şwĩ ú şedg1ú6ú7
    69sixty ninetüŋg ú sĩ şwĩ-zin ú şedg3ú56-zin-ú-7
    72seventy twoyú şedg-zin27zin
    215twohundred and fiveteensĩ ú sĩ şwĩ-zin ú sĩ şedg-zin5ú56zin-ú57zin
    216twohundred and sixteenşwĩ şedg-zin67zin
    217-1295
    Rule A "and" B "times" 6 "times" 36
    217twohundred and seventeenüs ú şwĩ şedg-zin1ú67zin
    1295sĩ ú sĩ şwĩ-zin ú sĩ şwĩ şedg-zin5ú567sin-ú567-zin
    1296-46655
    Rule
    1296kügü8
    46656-1679615
    Rule
    46656mihndeq9
    1679616-
    Rule
    1679616thónçuw0


    [edit] [top]eyiŋgügü- Eyiŋgügü - Verbs


    [edit] [top]eyiŋgügin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Eyiŋgügin kinü qhewedrgwárá - Verb affixation order

     Ancient-Mawic is mostly an agglutinative language. This can be seen in the verbs. Verbs are modifyed by adding affixes. Affixes can be combined, to express more complex things. They have a very stict order. Confusing them might change the meaning.

    SubjectVerbEvidentialAspectSub-aspectTenseMood
    -1012345
    tüydetürimgin_ts
    3DThird person dual (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee (they two)
    seeIDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
    speaker has indirect knowledge
    HABHabitual (aspect)
    done often or out of habit
    _PASPast
    action occurred before moment of speech
    INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions


    tüydetürimgintis
    Tüydetürimgintis?
    /tujdɛtuɾimgintis/
    (Maybe) they (both) used to see it?

    Anicient-Mawic language has a vowel harmony system, which might change the vowels of the affixes. The vowel harmony will be explained in an other article.

    [edit] [top]ḑejgwá - ḑejgwá - Evidentiality


    There are two classes of evidentiality. Direct evidential is unmarked. It's used when the speaker has direct knowledge about the event, believes as a truth. Indirect evidentiality is expressed with the word rim/rom (take). It's also possible to express doubt with it.

    keçüthã
    (Tüq) keçüthã
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .come-PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed

    He have come.

    keçürimthã
    keçürimthã
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .come-IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
    speaker has indirect knowledge
    -PERFPerfect (aspect/tense)
    have verb-ed

    He must have come.

    Or:

    ü-gwírim twüsédĩd
    Ügwírim twüsédĩd.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -got-IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
    speaker has indirect knowledge
    market-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    I might go to the market./Maybe I'll go to the market.

    [edit] [top]ebgü - Ebgü - Aspect


    There are 6 aspects in AWM.

  • Imperfective/Continous (unmarked) - the action is incomplete, the end point doesn't matter

  • üdetü
    Üdetü
    I see

  • Perfective (w/u/ü in present tense wot/ut/wöt/üt in past tense) - the action is/was/will be completed

  • üdetüwöt tükük
    Üdetüwöt tükük.
    I saw him.

  • Progressive (gu/gü) - incomplete action, has a definite end point VERB-ing

  • üyepteh
    Üyepteh
    I'm peeling it.

  • Habitual (gin/gon) - the action happens regularly

  • übedgin böküd
    Übedgin böküd.
    I stay here often.

  • Perfect (thã/thõ) - focusing to the changed state, that the action causedhave VERB-ed

  • mẽtthã ŋgẽgük úbguf
    Mẽtthã ŋgẽgük úbguf.
    He have got us food.

    There are two subaspects, they can be combined with any other aspects.

  • Infinitive (fá/fó) - to VERB

  • ügwígü yed
    Ügwígü yed.
    I'm going to fight.

  • Semelfactive ((ñ)ág/(ñ)og) - the action is repeated within the event.

  • üsãötöñág sãçáwak
    Üsãötöñág sãçáwak.
    I read the book again and again.

    [edit] [top]twó - Twó - Tenses


    AWM distinguishes only two tenses: past and non-past. Only past tense is marked with the t affix. Future events can be expressed by using indirect evidential, or time specifying words, like later, tomorrow, ect.

    Past:
    üsãt qwedgük dáütüd
    Üsãt qwedgük dáütüd
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -write-PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    .IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    letter-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    yesterday-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    I was writing a letter yesterday.

    Present:
    üsã(rim) qwedgük kédáwad
    Üsã(rim) qwedgük kédáwad
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -write.PREPresent.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    -(IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
    speaker has indirect knowledge
    ) letter-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    today-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    I (will) write a letter today.

    Future:
    üsãrim qwedgük dáübüd
    Üsãrim qwedgük dáübüd
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -write-IDREIndirect evidential (evidentiality)
    speaker has indirect knowledge
    letter-ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    tomorrow-LOCLocative (case)
    'in, on, at' etc

    I will write a letter tomorrow

    Future sentences always use indirect evidential, unless if it's a promise or a threat.

    [edit] [top]úgu - Úgu - Mood


    Moods work in a similar way as tense, aspect, evidential suffixes. There are 6 mood in PRMC:

  • Indicative (unmarked) - The basic form of a verb.

  • gwu gwüzẽg (dá)
    Gwu gwüzẽg (dá).
    sky.NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    blue COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

    Sky is blue.

  • Imperative (-r) - Marks command.

  • düfdeçer tükük!
    Düfdeçer tükük!
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -beat-IMPImperative (mood)
    command
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    .ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    Beat him!

  • Interrogative (-s) - Marks question.

  • düfdeçwötös tükük
    Düfdeçwötös tükük?
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -beat-INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    -PFVPerfective (aspect)
    completed action
    .PASTPast tense (tense)
    action occurred before moment of speech
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    Did you beat him?

  • Necessative (-q) - must/need to...

  • düfdeçeq tükük
    Düfdeçeq tükük!
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -beat-NECNecessitative mood (mood)
    must, have to
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    You must/need to beat him!

  • Abilitative (-keq/koq) - can...

  • düfdeçkeq tükük
    Düfdeçkeq tükük!
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -beat-ABILAbilitative (mood)
    expresses ability
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    You can beat him.

  • Causative (-düş/duş) - Make someone to do something

  • üfdeçdüş tükük dus
    Üfdeçdüş tükük dus.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -beat-CAUSCausative (valency/mood)
    cause an action to occur, force another argument to act
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -INSTCInstrumental-comitative (case)
    'with' (instrument and/or company)

    I make you to beat him.

  • Optative (-kĩ/kũ) - Wish, want to...

  • üfdeç tükük
    Üfdeç tükük.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -beat-OPTOptative (mood)
    'wish, hope'
    3SThird person singular (person)
    neither speaker nor addressee
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    I want to/would like to beat him.

    [edit] [top]táwgü - Táwgü - Negation


    There is a negative prefix (a/u) in AWM.
    For example:
    kék detü
    Kék detü.
    He/she sees it.

    kék adetü
    Kék adetü.
    He/she doesn't see it.

    But this is an old/archaic method of negation. It can not be used if the subject is marked in the verb. In this case the we use the word adá wich means "is not". Just put "adá" after the negated pharse.

    üdetü kék adá
    Üdetü kék adá.
    I don't see it.

    dügwíkeq gwó adá
    Dügwíkeq gwó adá
    You shall not pass!

    [edit] [top]Interrogative phrases


    [edit] [top]Yes/no questions


    Yes/no questions are simple. The word order stays the same. We must mark the verb with the interrogative suffix -s.

    da-kwá úb-uk.
    Da-kwá úb-uk.
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -like 1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    You like me.

    da-kwá-s úb-uk?
    Da-kwá-s úb-uk?
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -like-INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    Do you like me?

    If we except a "yes" answer:

    da-kwá-s úb-uk ?
    Da-kwá-s úb-uk ?
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -like-INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

    You like me, don't you?

    If we except a "no" answer:

    da-kwá-s a-dá úb-uk?
    Da-kwá-s a-dá úb-uk?
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -like-INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    -COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient

    You don't like me, do you?

    The answer might be:

    dá/adá
    Dá/Adá
    COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate
    /NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    -COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

    Yes/no

    ,or:

    ü-kwá./ü-kwá a-dá.
    Ü-kwá./Ü-kwá a-dá.
    1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -like.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    .NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    /1SFirst person singular (person)
    speaker, signer, etc.; I
    -like.IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'
    NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    NEGNegative (polarity)
    not
    -COPCopula
    used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate

    I like you./I don't like you.

    [edit] [top]Complicated questions


    The phrase begins with the interrogiative pronoun (what/who/where/why/how/ect). Do not forget, the pronouns are marked for case too. Except for the nominative. Nominative is unmarked.

    ses-k dã-sãöt-gü?
    Ses-k dã-sãöt-gü?
    whar.INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    -ACCAccusative (case)
    TRANS direct object; patient
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -read-NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    .PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing

    What are you reading?

    ses dün-indá?
    Ses dün-indá?
    what.INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    .NOMNominative (case)
    TRANS subject, INTR argument
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    .POSSPossessive (case)
    owns, has
    -name
    What (is) your name?

    seşteüs-sin de-çégü?
    Seşteüs-sin de-çégü?
    where.INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    -ELAElative (case)
    'out of, from'
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -origin
    Where are you from?

    seziŋg du-lu-gu?
    Seziŋg du-lu-gu?
    why.INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -run.NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    -PROGProgressive (aspect)
    be verb-ing

    Why are you running?

    sezeb da-dá?
    Sezeb da-dá?
    how.INTERRInterrogative mood (mood)
    asks questions
    2SSecond person singular (person)
    addressee (you)
    -be.NPSTNon-past (tense)
    present, continuous and future
    .IPFVImperfective (aspect)
    'interrupted or incomplete'

    How are you?

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