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Possession in Vandalon
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Possessive pronouns and clauses, genitive case by articles and nouns
This public article was written by [Deactivated User], and last updated on 16 Oct 2020, 21:10.

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Overview
In  Vandalon, possessive clauses are constructed using possessive pronouns, much like "Dativ ist dem Genitiv sein Tod" construction in Low German dialects. This development was intensified by the merging of Accudative case of articles with Genitive, yielding the present day Oblique.

Possessive pronouns
Possessive pronouns are declinated by person, gender, number. They agree in person with possessor and in gender and number with possessee
Sg. Masc. Sg. Fem.Plur.
1 Sg.mon [mɔ̃]ma [ma]mes [me(.z)]
2 Sg.ton [tɔ̃]ta [ta] tes [te(.z)]
3 Sg./Pl.son [sɔ̃]sa [sa]ses [se(.z)]
1 Pl.ontre [ɔ̃tʁ]ontre [ɔ̃tʁ]ontres [ɔ̃tʁ.(əz)]
2 Pl.œur [œʁ]œure [œʁ]eux [ø(.z)] / euse [øz]


Examples:
ma mère - my mother
ton père - your.SG father
sa sœur - his/her/their sister
ses guines - his/her/their friends
ontres hundes - our dogs
œure arvoit - your.PL work
eux chats - your.PL (male) cats
euse cues - your.PL cows

Possessive clauses
In modern spoken  Vandalon, possession is formed using possessive pronouns. A clause is composed from a possessor, followed by first the pronoun and then the possessee.

De mère sa duit - The daughter of a/the mother;
Un chat son loup - A paw of a/the cat;
Un mon ses deniers - Money of a/the person;
De doigr sa ginage - The beginning of a/the day.

The possessives may be chained:

De quene son berne son doigr du beresse sa givade - The woman her child their birthday its present = The birthday present to a/the woman's child.

As implied by the examples, in such possessive constructions the article agrees in definiteness with the object and in gender with the first word in the chain.

Genitive clauses
In the last example of the previous section, we have seen the genitive construction: doigr du beresse - "day of birth" = "birthday". This construction was common on the earlier stage of the language, but is mostly obsolete in modern  Vandalon. It is still occasionally used in the cases when the possessor is not given by a pronoun or personal name, and the possessee is inalienable. In that case, first comes the possessee, then a definite article in oblique case, agreeing in gender in number with the possessor, and then the possessor itself:

divesse de cieu - depth of the sea;
loigt du sonne - light of the sun;
cint des mons - son of the men.

The use of genitive construction is now mostly confined to poetic speech.

Genitive case by nouns
Likewise seldom is the genitive construction with case marking on the noun (see Cases in Vandalon), representing an even earlier stage of language development. Here, the possessor - in this case a proper name of one of few select others, takes the Genitive case, and is followed directly by a possessee, most commonly starting with a vowel or a silent h-

Hieudes huit duites - Hilda's eight daughters;
Ventalies himbre - Vandalia's skies
de landes luit - people of the land;
de dieux étarces - god's powers.

If the possessor comes with a definite article, the article agrees with it in gender and comes in Oblique case (former Genitive).
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