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Ngeyv cases
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what are they good for?
This public article was written by protondonor on 21 Apr 2019, 18:31.

[comments] Menu 1. Core cases: nominative, accusative, ergative 2. Secondary grammatical cases: dative and genitive 3. Locative cases: lative, elative, and prolative 4. Non-locative peripheral cases: comitative and instrumental The  Ngeyv language has ten different cases. Here is an overview of how and where they are used.

[top]Core cases: nominative, accusative, ergative

The core grammatical cases of Ngeyv are the nominative (unmarked), accusative, and ergative cases. The subject of an intransitive verb is always marked with the nominative. In transitive clauses, the object is always marked with the accusative. Case marking of the subject in transitive clauses depends on the tense. In present tense clauses, the subject is marked with the nominative, while in the past tense it is marked with the ergative.

[top]Secondary grammatical cases: dative and genitive

There are two other grammatical cases in Ngeyv, the dative and genitive. The dative is used to mark the recipient of a ditransitive clause. The theme is marked with the accusative, and the donor is marked with either the nominative or ergative depending on tense.

The genitive case is the main marker of possession. Ngeyv is in general a dependent-marking, head-final language, and possession is no exception. Possessors are marked with the genitive and precede the possessed noun.

[top]Locative cases: lative, elative, and prolative

There are 3 locative cases in Ngeyv, lative, elative, and prolative. The lative case denotes motion towards, into, or onto something. It can also be used to indicate metaphorical movement in time, into or towards the future. The elative case denotes motion away, out of, off, or off the surface of something, and when used temporally indicates going into the past. The prolative case denotes motion along or through something. It can also be used to indicate an action entirely within an area (e.g. "running around the room"), and can be used with a non-finite verb form to indicate an ongoing action (e.g. "while drinking tea").

[top]Non-locative peripheral cases: comitative and instrumental

The final two cases of Ngeyv are the comitative and instrumental. The comitative case indicates accompaniment, usually by an animate entity. The instrumental indicates the manner or instrument by which an action is accomplished. It can also be used to form locatives when none of the lative cases are appropriate, and in Ngeyv is sometimes used as a generic catch-all case for inanimate nouns and noun phrases. The comitative can sometimes be used as a similar generic relational case for animates.
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